In vitro Embryogenesis Derived from Shoot Tips in Mass Propagation of Two Selected-Clones of Phalaenopsis
Phalaenopsis is of high economic value and market demand in Indonesia; however, orchid products are mostly imported from other countries. â€˜Kristina Dwiâ€™ (KD) 69.274 and â€˜Dedehâ€™ (D) 802.28 are two selected clones with high potential utilized and developed commercially. To support their commercialization, a reliable in vitro propagation protocol is essential. In the current study, an in vitro mass propagation protocol for KD 69.274 and D 802.28 clones was successfully established using shoot tips as explant sources. A high number of embryos, up to 8.2 embryos per explant, with 58.5% explant regeneration, and 3.5 regenerated-explants in average were regenerated from shoot tips of KD 69.274 clone cultured on half-strength Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium, with full strength micro, Fe-chellate and vitamin containing 0.5 mg/L thidiazuruon (TDZ) and 0.25 mg/L N6-benzyladenine (BA). The initial embryos were proliferated by culturing embryos individually on half-strength MS medium with 0.13 mg/L TDZ and 0.25 mg/L BA and resulted in high embryo regeneration up to 91.4%, with 10.2 embryos per explant and no embryo browning. The embryos were multiplied under periodical subcultures of 3 months each, resulting in gradual increasing number of embryos from the first subculture till the fifth subculture, with 23.6 embryos produced, then declined afterward. The embryos were easily germinated on half-strength MS medium with full strength of vitamin and hormone free, with 73.9% embryo germination and 14.9 germinated embryos. Healthy plantlets were stimulated on the same medium with 2 g/L activated charcoal (AC) and successfully acclimatized on Cycas rumphii bulk, with 88.3% survival plantlets. Finally, it can be summarized that a new in vitro mass propagation protocol, as new alternative choice for Phalaenopsis propagation, was successfully established.
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