Pomegranate, fruit of the desert, a functional food, and a healthy diet


  • Mohamad H. SHAHRAJABIAN Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Biotechnology Research Institute, Beijing 100081 (CN)
  • Wenli SUN Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Biotechnology Research Institute, Beijing 100081 (CN)
  • Qi CHENG Hebei Agricultural University, College of Life Sciences, Baoding, Hebei, 071000, China; Global Alliance of HeBAU-CLS&HeQiS for BioAl-Manufacturing, Baoding, Hebei 071000 (CN)




ellagitannins, health benefits, pomegranate, punicalagin, traditional medicine


Traditional medicinal plants contain various ranges of chemical contents and they have become popular because of effectiveness, frequently inadequate provision of modern medicine, preferences and cultural beliefs. Pomegranate belongs to the family of Punicaceae, and its various pharmacological activities are due to presence of wide range of bioactive compounds. The current searching was done by the keywords in main indexing systems including PubMed/MEDLINE, Scopus, and Institute for Scientific Web of Science as well as the search engine of Google Scholar. The keywords were traditional medicine, health benefits, pharmaceutical science, pomegranate, punicalin, punicalagin, and ellagitannins. Major polyphenols in peel and juice of pomegranate are flavonoids such as flavonols (catechin, epicatechin, gallocatechin), condensed tannins, phenolic acids such as gallic, ellagic and caffeic, hyrolysable tannins such as ellagitannins and gallotannins. The main organic acids in pomegranate juice are malic and citric, and in seed is fatty acids (punicic). The major alkaloids and lignans in peel are punigratane and isolariciresinol, respectively. Pomegranate fruit has been proven to act against various diseases like cancer, cardiovascular disorders, diabetes, AIDS, Alzheimers disease, male infertility, inflammation, coronary heart disease, and aging. The review summarizes the beneficial impacts of pomegranate which is recommended for consumption. Pomegranate is a high potential natural functional food due to its high pharmacological activities as an ancient efficacious natural drug.


Metrics Loading ...


Abbasi H, Rezaei K, Emamdjomeh Z, Mousavi SME (2008). Effect of various extraction conditions on the phenolic contents of pomegranate seed oil. European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology 110:668. https://doi.org/10.1002/ejlt.200890027

Abdel-Hafeez EH, Ahmed AK, Abdellatif MZM, Kamal AM, Toni NDM (2016). The efficacy of pomegranate (Punica granatum) peel extract on experimentally infected rats with Blastocystis Spp. Journal of Infectious Diseases and Preventive Medicine 4(1):1-6. https://doi.org/10.4172/2329-8731.1000131

Abdellatif AAH, Alawadh SH, Bouazzaoui A, Alhowail AH, Mohammed HA (2020). Anthocyanins rich pomegranate cream as a topical formulation with anti-aging activity. Journal of Dermatological Treatment. https://doi.org/10.1080/09546634.2020.1721418

Abdel Moneim AE, Othman MS, Mohmoud SM, El-Deib KM (2013). Pomegranate peel attenuates aluminum-induced hepatorenal toxicity. Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods 23(8):624-633. https://doi.org/10.3109/15376516.2013.823634

Abdolhosseini S, Hashem-Dabaghian F, Mokaberinejad R, Sadeghpour O, Mehrabani M (2017). Effects of pomegranate and spearmint syrup on nausea and vomiting during pregnancy: A randomized controlled clinical trial. Iran Red Crescent Medical Journal 19(10):e13542. https://doi.org/10.5812/ircmj.13542

Abid M, Cheikhrouhou S, Renard CMGC, Bureau S, Cuvelier G, Attia H, Ayadi MA (2017). Characterization of pectins extracted from pomegranate peel and their gelling properties. Food Chemistry 215:318-325. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2016.07.181

Achraf A, Hamdi C, Turki M, Abdelkarim O, Ayadi F, Hoekelmann A, Yaich S, Souissi N (2018). Natural pomegranate juice reduces inflammation, muscle damage and increase platelets blood levels in active healthy Tunisian aged med. Alexandria Journal of Medicine 54(1):45-48. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajme.2017.03.005

Adams LS, Zhang Y, Seeram NP, Heber D, Chen S (2010). Pomegranate ellagitannin-derived compounds exhibit antiproliferative and antiaromatase activity in breast cancer cells in vitro. Cancer Prevention Research (Phila.) 3(1):108-113. https://doi.org/10.1158/1940-6207.capr-08-0225

Adhami VM, Mukhtar H (2006). Polyphenols from green tea ad pomegranate for prevention of prostate cancer. Free Radical Research 40(10):1095-1104. https://doi.org/10.1080/10715760600796498

AdhamiVM, Khan N, Mukhtar H (2009). Cancer chemopreventive by pomegranate: Laboratory and clinical evidence. Nutrition and Cancer 61(6):811-815. https://doi.org/10.1080/01635580903285064

Afaq F, Zaid MA, Khan N, Dreher M, Mukhtar H (2009). Protective effect of pomegranate derived products on UVB-mediated damage in human reconstituted skin. Experimental Dermatology 18(6):553-561. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0625.2008.00829.x

Afaq F, Khan N, Syed DN, Mukhtar H (2010). Oral feeding of pomegranate fruit extract inhibits early biomarkers of UVB radiation-induced carcinogenesis in SKH-1 hairless mouse epidermis. Photochemistry and Photobiology 86(6):1318-1326. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1751-1097.2010.00815.x

Ahmad T, Maheshwari SK, Siddiqui S, Latfar (2018). Nutritional and medicinal evaluation of pomegranate. Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Research 10(10):84-104.

Ahmadiankia N (2019). Molecular targets of pomegranate (Punica granatum) in preventing cancer metastasis. Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences 22:977-988.

Akuru EA, Oyeagu CE, Mpendulo TC, Rautenbach F, Oguntibeju OO (2020). Effect of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) peel powder meal dietary supplementation on antioxidant status and quality of breast meat in broilers. Heliyon 6:e05709. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2020.e05709

Ali A, Chen Y, Liu H, Yu L, Baloch Z, Khalid S, Zhu J, Chen L (2019). Starch-based antimicrobial films functionalized by pomegranate peel. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules 129:1120-1126. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2018.09.068

Alimoradian A, Changizi-Ashtiyani S, Ghiasabadi Farahani A, KhederL, Rajabi R, Sharifi A (2017). Protective effects of pomegranate juice on nephrotoxicity induced by captopril and gentamicin in rats. Iranian Journal of Kidney Diseases 11(6):422-429.

Almuhayawi MS, Ramadan WS, HarakehS, Al Jaouni SK, Bharali DJ, Mousa SA, and Almuhayawi SM (2020). The potential role of pomegranate and its nano-formulations on cerebral neurons in aluminum chloride induced Alzheimer rat model. Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences 27:1710-1716. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2020.04.045

Al-Zoreky NS (2009). Antimicrobial activity of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) fruit peels. International Journal of Food Microbiology 134(3):244-248. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2009.07.002

Amakura Y, Okada M, Tsuji S, Tonogai Y (2000). Determination of phenolic acids in fruit juices by isocratic column liquid chromatography. Journal of Chromatography A 891(1):183-188. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0021-9673(00)00625-7

Amin GR (1991). Iranian Traditional Medicinal Plants. Tehran, Iran: Farhang Publications.

Amri Z, Kharroubi W, Fidanzi-Dugas C, Leger DY, Hammami M, Liagre B (2020). Growth inhibitory and pro-apoptotic effects of ornamental pomegranate extracts in Du145 human prostate cancer cells. Nutrition and Cancer 72(6):932-938. https://doi.org/10.1080/01635581.2019.1660385

Andrade MA, Lima V, Silva AS, Vilarinho F, Catilho MC, Khwaldia K, Ramos F (2019). Pomegranate and grape by-products and their active compounds: Are they a valuable source for food applications? Trends in Food Science and Technology 86:68-84. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tifs.2019.02.010

Argov-Argaman N, Cohen-Zinder M, Leibovich H, Yishay M, Eitam H, Agmon R, … Shabtay A (2020). Dietary pomegranate peel improves milk quality of lactating ewes: Emphasis on milk fat globule membrane properties and antioxidative traits. Food Chemistry 313:125822. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2019.125822

Asadi-Gharneh HA, Mohammadzamani M, Karimi S (2017). Evaluation of physic-chemical properties and bioactive compounds of some Iranian pomegranate cultivars. International Journal of Fruit Science 17(2):175-187. https://doi.org/10.1080/15538362.2016.1275923

Bakir S, Yazgan UC, Ibiloglu I, Elbey B, Kizil M, Kelle M (2015). The protective effect of pomegranate extract against cisplatin toxicity in rat liver and kidney tissue. Archives of Physiology and Biochemistry 121(4):152-156. https://doi.org/10.3109/13813455.2015.1068336

Balasubramani SP, Mohan J, Chatterjee A, Patnaik E, Kukkupuni SK, Nongthomba U, Venkatasubramanian P (2014). Pomegranate juice enhances healthy lifespan in Drosophila melanogaster: an exploratory study. Frontiers in Public Health 2(245):1-9. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2014.00245

Bassiri-Jshromi S, Pourshafie MR, MirabzadeArdakani E, Ehsani AH, Doostkam A, Katirae F, Mostafavi E (2018). In vivo comparative evaluation of the pomegranate (Punica granatum) peel extract as an alternative agent to nystatin against oral candidiasis. Iran Journal of Medical Science 43(3):296-304.

Bellesia A, Verzelloni E, Tagliazucchi D (2015). Pomegranate ellagitannins inhibit α-glucosidase activity in vitro and reduce starch digestibility under simulated gastro-intestinal conditions. International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition 66(1):85-92. https://doi.org/10.3109/09637486.2014.953455

Ben-Simhon Z, Judeinstein S, Trainin T, Harel-Beja R, Bar-Ya,akov I, Borochov-Neori H, Holland D(2015). A “White” anthocyanin-less pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) caused by an insertion in the coding region of the leucoanthocyanidin dioxygenase (LDOX: ANS) gene. PloS One 10:1-21. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0142777

Bertolo MRV, Martins VCA, Horn MM, Brenelli LB, Plepis AMG (2020). Rheological and antioxidant properties of chitosan/gelatin-based materials functionalized by pomegranate peel extract. Carbohydrate Polymers 228:115386. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2019.115386

Betanzos-Cabrera G, Montes-Rubio PY, Fabela-Illescas HE, Belefant-Miller H, Cancino-Diaz JC (2015). Antibacterial activity of fresh pomegranate juice against clinical strains of Staphylococcus epidermidis. Food and Nutrition Research 59(1):27620. https://doi.org/10.3402/fnr.v59.27620

Boggula N, Peddapalli H (2017). Phytochemical analysis and evaluation of in vitro antioxidant activity of Punica granatum leaves. International Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemical Research 9(8):1110-1118. https://doi.org/10.25258/phyto.v9i08.9618

Bounihi A, Bitam A, Bouazza A, Yargui L, Ahmed Koceir E (2017). Fruit vinegars attenuate cardiac injury via anti-inflammatory and anti-adiposity actions in high-fat diet-induced obese rats. Pharmaceutical Biology 55(1):43-52. https://doi.org/10.1080/13880209.2016.1226369

Bouroshaki MT, Sadeghnia HR, Banihasan M, Yavari S (2010). Protective effect of pomegranate seed oil on hexachlorobutadiene-induced nephrotoxicity in rat kidneys. Renal Failure 32(5):612-617. https://doi.org/10.3109/08860221003778056

Cerda B, Ceron JJ, Tomas-Barberan FA, Espin JC (2003). Repeated oral administration of high doses of pomegranate ellagitannin punicalagin to rats for 37 days in not toxic. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 51:3493-3501. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf020842c

Chaitra RH, Madhuri M, Swaroop T, Arijit D, Sourav B, Rohit KC (2012). Evaluation of antimicrobial properties, phytochemical contents and antioxidant capacity of leaf extracts of Punica granatum L. Journal of Biological Sciences 1:32-37.

Dadashi S, Mousazadeh M, Emam-Djomeh Z, Mousavi SM (2013). Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) seed: A comparative study on biochemical composition and oil physicochemical characteristics. International Journal of Advanced Biological and Biomedical Research 1(4):351-363.

Dana N, Javanmard SH, Rafiee L (2015). Antiangiogenic and antiproliferative effects of black pomegranate peel extract on melanoma cell line. Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences 10(2):117-124. https://doi.org/10.7324/japs.2015.50109

Dana N, Haghjooy J, Rafiee L (2016). Role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha and gamma in antiangiogenic effect of pomegranate peel extract. Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences 19:106-110. https://doi.org/10.32388/schnwf

Demiray E, Karatay SE, Donmez G (2018). Evaluation of pomegranate peel in ethanol production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pichia stipitis. Energy 159:988-994. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.energy.2018.06.200

Deng Y, Li Y, Yang F, Zing A, Yang S, Luo Y, … Yin W (2017). The extract from Punica granatum (pomegranate) peel induces apoptosis and impairs metastasis in prostate cancer cells. Biomedicine and Pharmacotherapy 93:976-984. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2017.07.008

Derakhshan Z, Ferrante M, Tadi M, Ansari F, Heydari A, Hosseini MS, Conti GO, Sadrabad EK (2018). Antioxidant activity and total phenolic content of ethanolic extract of pomegranate peels, juice and seeds. Food and Chemical Toxicology 114:108-111. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2018.02.023

Devatkal SK, Jaiswal P, Jha SN, Bharadwaj R, Viswas KN (2013). Antibacterial activity of aqueous extract of pomegranate peel against Pseudomonas stutzeri isolated from poultry meat. Journal of Food Science and Technology 50(3):555-560. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13197-011-0351-y

Doostan F, Mesgari Abbasi M, KhordadmehrM, Fallah F, Behrouzy A (2019). Effects of pomegranate seed and peel methanolic extracts on methotrexate-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Pharmaceutical Sciences 25(2):111-117. https://doi.org/10.15171/ps.2019.17

Drinic Z, Mudric J, Zdunic G, Bigovic D, Menkovic N, Savikin K (2020). Effect of pomegranate peel extract on the oxidative stability of pomegranate seed oil. Food Chemistry 333:127501. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2020.127501

Duman AD, Ozgen M, DayisoyluKS, Erbil N, Durgac C (2009). Antimicrobial activity of six pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) varieties and their relation to some of their pomological and phytonutrient characteristics. Molecules 14:1808-1817. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules14051808

El-Ashmawy NE, Khedr EG, El-Bahrawy HA, Abd El-Fattah EE (2016). Effect of pomegranate hull extract on liver neoplastic changes in rats: more than anti-oxidant. Nutrition and Cancer 68(6):1044-1051. https://doi.org/10.1080/01635581.2016.1192205

El-Barnossi A, Moussaid F, Housseini AI (2021). Tangerine, banana and pomegranate peels valorization for sustainable environment: A review. Biotechnology Reports 29:e00574. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.btre.2020.e00574

El Daly AA (2016). Pomegranate peels extract protects Cadmium-induced nephrotoxicity in albino mice. Journal of Bioscience and Applied Research 2:362-375. https://doi.org/10.21608/jbaar.2016.108529

El Darra N, Rajha HN, Saleh F, Al-Oweini R, Maroun RG, Louka N (2017). Food fraud detection in commercial pomegranate molasses syrups by UV-VIS spectroscopy, ATR-FTIR spectroscopy and HPLC methods. Food Control 78:132-137. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2017.02.043

El Habibi EM (2013). Renoprotective effects of Punica granatum (pomegranate) against adenine-induced chronic renal failure in male rats. Life Sciences Journal 10(4):2059-2069.

El-Hadary A, Taha M (2020). Pomegranate peel methanolic-extract improves the shelf-life of edible-oils under accelerated oxidation conditions. Food Science and Nutrition 8:1798-1811. https://doi.org/10.1002/fsn3.1391

El-Sayyad HIH, El-Gallil HA, El-Ghaweet HA (2020). Synergistic effects of pomegranate juice and atorvastatin for improving cerebellar structure and function of breast-feeding rats maternally fed on a high cholesterol diet. Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy 107:101798. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jchemneu.2020.101798

Elwej A, Ghorbel I, Marrekchi R, Boudawara O, Jamoussi K, Boudawara T, Zeghal N, Sefi M (2016). Improvement of kidney redox states contributes to the beneficial effects of dietary pomegranate peel against barium chloride-induced nephrotoxicity in adult rats. Archives of Physiology and Biochemistry 122(3):130-140. https://doi.org/10.3109/13813455.2016.1150298

Elwej A, Salah GB, Kallel C, FakhfakhF, Zeghal N, Amara IB (2016). Protective effects of pomegranate peel against hematotoxicity, chromosomal aberrations, and genotoxicity induced by barium chloride in adult rats. Pharmaceutical Biology 54(6):964-974. https://doi.org/10.3109/13880209.2015.1087035

Elzayat EM, Auda SH, Alanazi FK, Al-Agamy MH (2018). Evaluation of wound healing activity of henna, pomegranate and myrrh herbal ointment blend. Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal 26:733-738. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsps.2018.02.016

Ender P, Vural G, Nevzat A (2002). Organic acids and phenolic compounds in pomegranates (Punica granatum L.) grown in Turkey. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis 15:567-575. https://doi.org/10.1006/jfca.2002.1071

Escarcega GH, Sanchez-Chavez E, Alvarez SP, Caballero MS, Parra JMS, Flores-Cordova MA, Salazar NAS, Barrios DLO (2020). Determination of antioxidant phenolic, nutritional quality and volatiles in pomegranates (Punica granatum L.) cultivated in Mexico. International Journal of Food Properties 23(1):979-991. https://doi.org/10.1080/10942912.2020.1760879

Faghihimani Z, Mirmiran P, Sohrab G, Iraj B, Faghihimani E (2016). Effects of pomegranate seed oil on metabolic state of patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus. International Journal of Preventive Medicine 7:124. https://doi.org/10.4103/2008-7802.194883

Faisi J, Fattahi A, Raffel N, Hoffmann I, Beckmann MW, Schrauder M, Dittrich R, Lohberg C (2018). Effects of pomegranate seed oil and fermented juice polyphenols fractions in different solvents on copper-induced LDL oxidation. CyTA- Journal of Food 16(1):429-437. https://doi.org/10.1080/19476337.2017.1415375

Faria A, Calhau C (2011). The bioactivity of pomegranate: Impact on health and disease. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition 51(7):626-634. https://doi.org/10.1080/10408391003748100

Fazeli MR, Bahmani S, Jamalifar H, Samadi N (2011). Effect of probiotication on antioxidant and antibacterial activities of pomegranate juices from sour and sweet cultivars. Natural Product Research 25(3):288-297. https://doi.org/10.1080/14786419.2010.495068

Fischer UA, Carle R, Kammerer DR (2011). Identification and quantification of phenolic compounds from pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) peel, mesocarp, aril and differently produced juices by HPLC-DAD-ESI/MSn. Food Chemistry 127(2):807-821. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2010.12.156

George J, Singh M, Srivastava AK, Bhui K, Shukla Y (2011). Synergistic growth inhibition of mouse skin tumors by pomegranate fruit extract and diallyl sulfide evidence for inhibition of activated MAPKs/NF-happaB and reduced cell proliferation. Food Chemistry and Toxicology 49(7):1511-1520. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2019.110784

Ghaleh Mohammadi MO, Mirghazanfari SM (2019). Investigation of Iranian pomegranate cultivars for wound healing components. European Journal of Translational Myology 29(1):22-26. https://doi.org/10.4081/ejtm.2019.7995

GhasemiPirbalouti A, Koohpayeh A, Karimi I (2010). The wound healing activity of flower extracts of Punica granatum and Achillea kellalensis in wistar rats. Acta Poloniae Pharmaceutica- Drug Research 67(1):107-110.

Gil MI, Tomas-Barberan FA, Hess-Pierce B, Holcroft DM, Kader AA (2000). Antioxidant activity of pomegranate juice and its relationship with phenolic composition and processing. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 48(10):4581-4589. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf000404a

Glazer I, Masaphy S, Marciano P, Bar-Ilan I, Holland D, Kerem Z, Amir R (2012). Partial identification of antifungal compounds from Punica granatum peel extracts. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 60(19):4841-4848. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf300330y

Gould SWJ, Fielder MD, Kelly AF, El Sankary W, Naughton DP (2009). Antimicrobial pomegranate rind extracts: enhancement by Cu (II) and vitamin C combinations against clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. British Journal of Biomedical Science 66(3):129-132. https://doi.org/10.1080/09674845.2009.11730258

Govindappa M, Tejashree S, Thanuja V, Hemashekhar B, Srinivas C, Nasif O, Pugazhendhi A, Raghavendra VB (2021). Pomegranate fruit fleshy pericarp mediated silver nanoparticles possessing antimicrobial, antibiofilm formation, antioxidant, biocompatibility and anticancer activity. Journal of Drug Delivery Science and Technology 61:102289. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jddst.2020.102289

Grabez M, Skrbic R, Stojiljkovic MP, Rudic-Grujic V, Paunovic M, Arsic A, … Vasiljevic N (2020). Beneficial effects of pomegranate peel extract on plasma lipid profile, fatty acids levels and blood pressure in patients with diabetes mellitus type-2: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Journal of Functional Foods 64:103692. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jff.2019.103692

Gul HF, Ilhan N, Ilhan N, Ozercan IH, Kuloglu T (2021). The combined effect of pomegranate extract and tangeretin on the DMBA-induced breast cancer model. The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry 89:108566. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jnutbio.2020.108566

Guler Z, Gul E (2017). Volatile organic compounds in the aril juices and seeds from selected five pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) cultivars. International Journal of Food Properties 20(2):281-293. https://doi.org/10.1080/10942912.2016.1155057

Guo CJ, Wei Y, Yang JJ, Li YF, Xu J, Jiang YG (2003). The antioxidant capacity of 66 vegetables and fruits: a comparative study. Acta Nutrimenta Sinica 25:203-207.

Guo CJ, Yang JJ, Wei JY, Li YF, Xu J, Jiang YG (2003). Antioxidant activities of peel, pulp and seed fractions of common fruits, as determined by by FRAP assay. Nutrition Research 23:1719-1726. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nutres.2003.08.005

Habibnia M, Ghavami M, Ansaripour M, Vosough S (2012). Chemical evaluation of oils extracted from five different varieties of Iranian pomegranate seeds. Journal of Food Biosciences and Technology 2:35-40.

Hasnaoui N, Jbir R, Mars M, Trifi M, Kamal-Eldin A, Melgarejo P, Hernandez F (2011). Organic acids, sugars, and anthocyanins contents in juices of Tunisian pomegranate fruits. International Journal of Food Properties 14(4):741-757. https://doi.org/10.1080/10942910903383438

Hasnaoui N, Wathelet B, Jimenez-Araujo A (2014). Valorization of pomegranate peel from 12 cultivars: dietary fibre composition, antioxidant capacity and functional properties. Food Chemistry 160:196-203. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2014.03.089

HassanpourFard M, Ghule AE, Bodhankar SL, Dikshit M (2011). Cardioprotective effect of whole fruit extract of pomegranate on doxorubicin-induced toxicity in rat. Pharmaceutical Biology 49(4):377-382. https://doi.org/10.3109/13880209.2010.517758

He L, Lan W, Ahmed S, Qin W, Liu Y (2019). Electrospun polyvinyl alcohol film containing pomegranate peel extract and sodium dehydroacetate for use as food packaging. Food Packaging and Shelf Life 22:100390. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fpsl.2019.100390

Hornung E, Pernstich C, Feussner I (2002). Formation of conjugated Δ11 Δ13-double bonds by Δ12-linoleic acid (1,4)-acyl-lipid-desaturase in pomegranate seeds. European Journal of Biochemistry 269(19):4852-4859. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1432-1033.2002.03184.x

Huang THW, Peng G, Kota BP (2005). Anti-diabetic action of Punica granatum flower extract: activation of PPAR-γ and identification of an active component. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 207(2):160-169. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.taap.2004.12.009

Houston DMJ, Bugert JJ, Denyer SP, Heard CM (2017). Potentiated virucidal activity of pomegranate rind extract (PRE) and punicalagin against Herpes simplex virus (HSV) when co-administered with zinc (II) ions, and antiviral activity of PRE against HSV and aciclovir-resistant HSV. PloS One 12(6):e0179291. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0179291

Ismail OM, Younis RA, Ibrahim AM (2014). Morphological and molecular evaluation of some Egyptian pomegranate cultivars. African Journal of Biotechnology 13(2). https://doi.org/10.5897/ajb2013.13035

Jagdale S, Ahiwale S, Gajbhiye M, Kapadnis B (2019). Green approach to phytopathogen: Characterization of lytic bacteriophages of Pseudomonas sp., an etiology of the bacterial blight of pomegranate. Microbiological Research 228:126300. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.micres.2019.126300

Jaiswal V, DerMarderosian A, Porter JR (2010). Anthocyanins and polyphenol oxidase from dried arils of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.). Food Chemistry 118:11-16. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2009.01.095

Jandari S, Hatami E, Ziaei R, Ghavai A, Yamchi AM (2020). The effect of pomegranate (Punica granatum) supplementation on metabolic status in patients with type 2 diabetes: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Complementary Therapies in Medicine 52:102478. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ctim.2020.102478

Jesse Joel T, Suluvoy JK, Varghese J (2019). Evaluation of the secondary metabolites of the waste pomegranate rind and its cytotoxicity against oral cancer (KB 3-1). Journal of Pure and Applied Microbiology 13(3):1667-1672. https://doi.org/10.22207/jpam.13.3.40

Joseph MM, Aravind SR, Varghese S, Mini S, Sreelekha TT (2012). Evaluation of antioxidant, antitumor and immunomodulatory properties of polysaccharide isolated from fruit of Punica granatum. Molecular Medicine Reports 5(2):489-496.

Kam A, Li KM, Razmovski-Naumovski V, Nammi S, Chan K, Li GQ (2013). Variability of the polyphenolic content and antioxidant capacity of methanolic extracts of pomegranate peel. Natural Product Communications 8(6):707-710. https://doi.org/10.1177/1934578x1300800607

Karimi M, Sadeghi R, Kokini J (2017). Pomegranate as a promising opportunity in medicine and nanotechnology. Trends in Food Science and Technology 69(Part A):59-73. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tifs.2017.08.019

Karwasra R, Singh S, Sharma D, Sharma S, Sharma N, Khanna K (2019). Pomegranate supplementation attenuates inflammation, joint dysfunction via inhibition of NF-κB signaling pathway in experimental models of rheumatoid arthritis. Journal of Food Biochemistry E12959:1-12. https://doi.org/10.1111/jfbc.12959

Katana LK, Maina CI, Orenge CO, Kirui CK, Muriuki G, Waithaka PN (2019). Effectiveness of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) fruit extract on the sexual functional in rats. Journal of Microbial and Biochemical Technology 11(4):424.

Kennas A, Amellal-Chibane H, Kessal F, Halladj F (2020). Effect of pomegranate peel and honey fortification on physicochemical, physical, microbiological and antioxidant properties of yoghurt powder. Journal of the Saudi Society of Agricultural Sciences 19:99-108. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jssas.2018.07.001

Khalid S, Yu L, Feng M, Meng L, Bai Y, Ali A, Liu H, Chen L (2018). Development and characterization of biodegradable antimicrobial packaging films based on polycaprolactone, starch and pomegranate rind hybrids. Food Packaging and Shelf Life 18:71-79. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fpsl.2018.08.008

Khan N, Hadi N, Afaq F, Syed DN, Kweon MH, Mukhtar H (2007). Pomegranate fruit extract inhibits prourvival pathways in human A549 lung carcinoma cells and tumor growth in athymic nude mice. Carcinogenesis 28(1):163-173. https://doi.org/10.1093/carcin/bgl145

Khan N, Afaq F, Mukhtar H (2008). Cancer chemoprevention through dietary antioxidants: progress and promise. Antioxidants Redox Signal 10:475-510. https://doi.org/10.1089/ars.2007.1740

Khan GN, Gorin MA, Rosenthal D, Pan Q, Bao LW, Wu ZF, … Merajver SD (2009). Pomegranate fruit extract impairs invasion and motility in human breast cancer. Integrative Cancer Therapies 8(3):242-253. https://doi.org/10.1177/1534735409341405

Khan NH, Ying ALT, Tian CGZ, Yi OW, Vijayabalan S (2017). Screening of Punica Granatum seeds for antibacterial and antioxidant activity with various extracts: A brief analytical study. Current Advances in Chemistry and Biochemistry 8:146-159. https://doi.org/10.35841/biotechnology-phytochemistry.1.1.1-7

Kho YL, Jung W, Kwon D, Kim JH (2010). Identification of estrone in pomegranate (Punica granatum) extracts by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Food Science and Biotechnology 19(3):809-813. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10068-010-0113-z

Khorrami S, Zarepour A, Zarrabi A (2019). Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles at low temperature in a fast pace with unique DPPH radical scavenging and selective cytotoxicity against MCF-7 and BT-20 tumor cell lines. Biotechnology Reports 24:e00393. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.btre.2019.e00393

Kohno H, Suzuki R, Yasui Y, Hosokawa M, Miyashita K, Tanaka T (2004). Pomegranate seed oil rich in conjugated linolenic acid suppresses chemically induced colon carcinogenesis in rats. Cancer Science 95(6):481-486. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1349-7006.2004.tb03236.x

Kotamballi, Chidambara Murthy N, Guddadarangavvahally, Jayaprakasha K, Singh RP (2002). Studies on antioxidant activity of pomegranate (Punica granatum) peel extract using in vivo models. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry 50(17):4791-4795. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf0255735

Kote S, Kote S, Nagesh L (2011). Effect of pomegranate juice on dental plaque micro-organisms (streptococci and lactobacilli). Ancient Science of Life 31(2):49-52. https://doi.org/10.4103/0257-7941.107364

Koyama S, Cobb LJ, Mehta HH, SeeramNP, Heber D, Pantuck AJ (2010). Pomegranate extract induces apoptosis in human prostate cancer cells by modulation of the IGF-IGFBP axis. Growth Hormone and IGF Research 20:55-62. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ghir.2009.09.003

Lan J, Lei F, Hua L, Wang Y, Xing D, Du L (2009). Transport behavior of ellagic acid of pomegranate leaf tannins and its correlation with total cholesterol alteration in HepG2 cells. Biomedical Chromatography 23(5):531-536. https://doi.org/10.1002/bmc.1150

Lansky E, Shubert S, Neeman I (2000). Pharmacological and therapeutic properties of pomegranate. Options Méditerranéennes. Série A, Séminaires Méditerranéens 42:231-235.

Lansky EP, Newman RA (2007). Punica granatum (pomegranate) and its potential for prevention and treatment of inflammation and cancer. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 109:177-206. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2006.09.006

Lantzouraki D, Sinanoglou VJ, Zoumpoulakis P, Proestos C (2016). Comparison of the antioxidant and antiradical activity of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) by ultrasound-assisted and classical extraction. Analytical Letters 49(7):969-978. https://doi.org/10.1080/00032719.2015.1038550

Lee CJ, Chen LG, Liang WL, Wang CC (2010). Anti-inflammatory effects of Punica granatum in vitro and in vivo. Food Chemistry 118:315-322. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2009.04.123

Lee ST, Lu MH, Chien LH, Wu TF, Huang LC, Liao GI (2013). Suppression of urinary bladder urothelial carcinoma cell by the ethanol extract of pomegranate fruit through cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 13:364. https://doi.org/10.1186/1472-6882-13-364

Lei F, Zhang XN, Wang W, Xing DM, Xie WD, Su H, Du LJ (2007). Evidence of anti-obesity effects of pomegranate leaf extract in high-fat-diet-induced obese mice. International Journal of Obesity 31(6):1023-1029. https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.ijo.0803502

Liu H, Zing Z, Wang S, Li T, Mastriani E, Li Q-H, … Liu S-L (2017). Main components of pomegranate, ellagic acid and luteolin, inhibit metastasis of ovarian cancer by down-regulating MMP2 and MMP9. Cancer Biology and Therapy 18(12):990-999. https://doi.org/10.1080/15384047.2017.1394542

Liu C, Guo H, DaSilva NA, Li D, Zhang K, Wang Y, Gao X-H, Chen H-D, Seeram NP, Ma H )2019(. Pomegranate (Punica granatum) phenolics ameliorate hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress and cytotoxicity in human keratinocytes. Journal of Functional Foods 54:559-567. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jff.2019.02.015

Lucci P, Pacetti D, Loizzo MR, Frega NG (2015). Punica granatum cv. Dente di Cavallo seed ethanolic extract: antioxidant and antiproliferative activities. Food Chemistry 167:475-483. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2014.06.123

Lukiswanto BS, Miranti A, Sudjarwo SA, Primarizky H, Yuniarti WM (2019). Evaluation of wound healing potential of pomegranate (Punica granatum) whole fruit extract on skin burn wound in rats (Rattus norvegicus). Journal of Advanced Veterinary and Animal Research 6(2):202-207. https://doi.org/10.5455/javar.2019.f333

Lydia KK, Charles IM, Caleb OO, Collins KK, Benson GM, Paul NW (2019). Effectiveness of pomegranate (Punica Granatum L.) fruit extract on the sexual function in rats. Journal of Microbial and Biochemical Technology 11(424):1-6.

Ma Y, Yin X, Bi X, Su F, Liang Z, Luo M, Fu D, Xing Y, Che Z (2019). Physicochemical properties and bioactive compounds of fermented pomegranate juice as affected by high-pressure processing and thermal treatment. International Journal of Food Properties 22(1):1250-1269. https://doi.org/10.1080/10942912.2019.1640737

Mahboubi A, Asgarpanah J, Sadaghiyani PN, Faizi M (2015). Total phenolic and flavonoid content and antibacterial activity of Punica granatum L. var. pleniflora flowers (Golnar) against bacterial strains causing foodborne diseases. Complementary and Alternative Medicine 15:366. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12906-015-0887-x

Mars M (2000). Pomegranate Plan material: genetic resources and breeding. A review. CIHEAM, Zaragoza, pp 55-62.

Martinez L, Castillo J, Ros G, Nieto G )2019(. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of rosemary, pomegranate and olive extracts in fish patties. Antioxidants 8(86):1-16. https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8040086

Mastrogiovanni F, Bernini R, Basirico L, Bernabucci U, Campo M, Romani A, Santi L, Lacetera N (2020). Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of pomegranate peel extracts on bovine mammary epithelial cells BME-UV1. Natural Product Research 34(10):1465-1469. https://doi.org/10.1080/14786419.2018.1508149

Mehta R, Lansky E P)2004(. Breast cancer chemo-preventive properties of pomegranate (Punica granatum) fruit extracts in a mouse mammary organ culture. European Journal of Cancer Prevention 13:345-348. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.cej.0000136571.70998.5a

Melgarejo P, Nunez-Gomez D, Legua P, Martinez-Nicolas JJ, Almansa MS (2020). Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) a dry pericarp fruit with fleshy seeds. Trends in Food Science and Technology 102:232-236. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tifs.2020.02.014

Menezes SMS, Cordeiro LN, Viana GS )2006(. Punica granatum (Pomegranate) extract is active against dental plaque. Journal of Herbal Pharmacotherapy 6(2):79-92. https://doi.org/10.1080/j157v06n02_07

Minaiyan M, Zolfaghari B, Taheri D, Gomarian M (2014). Preventive effect of three pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) seeds fractions on cerulean-induced acute pancreatitis in mice. International Journal of Preventive Medicine 5(4):394-404.

Mirdehghan SH, Rahemi M (2007). Seasonal changes of mineral nutrients and phenolics in pomegranate (Punica granatum L.). Scientia Horticulturae Fruit 111:120-127. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scienta.2006.10.001

Mirzapour MH, Khoshgoftarmanesh AH (2013). Effect of soil and foliar application of iron and zinc on quantitative and qualitative yield of pomegranate. Journal of Plant Nutrition 36(1):55-66. https://doi.org/10.1080/01904167.2012.733049

Mo J, Panichayupakaranant P, Kaewnopparat N, Nitiruangjaras A, Reanmongkol W (2013). Topical anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of standardized pomegranate rind extract in comparison with its marker compound ellagic acid in vivo. Journal of Ethno-Pharmacology 148(3):901-908. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2013.05.040

Moghaddam G, Sharifzadeh M, Hassanzadeh G, Khanavi M, Hajimahmoodi M (2013). Anti-ulcerogenic activity of the pomegranate peel (Punica granatum) methanol extract. Food and Nutrition Sciences 4:43-48. https://doi.org/10.4236/fns.2013.410a008

Moghadam M, Salami M, Mohammadian M, Khodadadi M, Emam-Djomeh Z (2020). Development of antioxidant edible films based on mung bean protein enriched with pomegranate peel. Food Hydrocolloids 104:105735. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodhyd.2020.105735

Mohapatra S(2014). Residue dynamics of chlorpyrifios and cypermethrin in/on pomegranate (Pubica granatum L.) fruits and soil. International Journal of Environmental Analytical Chemistry 94(14-15):1394-1406. https://doi.org/10.1080/03067319.2014.954564

Mollazadeh H, Sadeghnia HR, Hoseini A, Farzadnia M, Boroushaki MT (2016). Effects of pomegranate seed oil on oxidative stress markers, serum biochemical parameters and pathological findings in kidney and heart of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Renal Failure 38(8):1256-1266. https://doi.org/10.1080/0886022x.2016.1207053

Monfared M, Karimi-Yazdi A, Dabaghian F, Amini BF (2019). Successful treatment of chronic vertigo with pomegranate concentrated juice: A report two cases. Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal 21(2):e83103. https://doi.org/10.5812/ircmj.83103

Monir W, Abdel-Rahman MA, Hassan SE-D, Mansour ES, Awad SMM (2020). Pomegranate peel and moringa-based diets enhanced biochemical and immune parameters of Nile tilapia against bacterial infection by Aeromonas hydrophila. Microbial Pathogenesis 145:104202. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.micpath.2020.104202

Moradi M-T, Karimi A, Alidadi S, Gholami-Arjenaki M (2015). In vitro anti-herpes simplex type-1 activity, antioxidant potential and total phenolic compounds of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) peel extract. Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Research 7(8):82-88. https://doi.org/10.1177/2040206620916571

Moradi M-T, Karimi A, Shahrani M, Hashemi L, Ghaffari-Goosheh M-S (2019). Anti-influenza virus activity and phenolic content of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) peel extract and fractions. Avicenna Journal of Medical Biotechnology 11(4):285-291.

Mortada WI, Awadalla A, Khater SM, Barakat NM, Husseiny SM, Shokeir AA (2020). Preventive effect of pomegranate juice against chemically induced bladder cancer: An experimental study. Heliyon 6:e05192. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2020.e05192

Morvaridzadeh M, Sepidarkish M, Daneshzad E, Akbari A, Mobini GR, Heshmati J (2020). The effect of pomegranate on oxidative stress parameters: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Complementary Therapies in Medicine 48:102252. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ctim.2019.102252

Mphahlele RR, Pathare PB, Opara UL (2019). Drying kinetics of pomegranate fruit peel (cv. Wonderful). Scientific African 5:e00145. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sciaf.2019.e00145

Mubaraki MA, Hafiz TA, Dkhil MA, Al-Quraishy S (2016). Beneficial effect of Punica granatum peel extract on murine malaria-induced spleen injury. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 16(1):221. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12906-016-1207-9

Nallanthighal S, Shirode AB, Judd JA, Reliene R (2016). Pomegranate intake protects against genomic instability induced by medical X-rays in vivo in mice. Nutrition and Cancer 68(8):1349-1356. https://doi.org/10.1080/01635581.2016.1225104

Nallanthighal S, Elmaliki KM, Relience R (2017). Pomegranate extract alters breast cancer stem cell properties in association with inhibition of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. Nutrition and Cancer 69(7):1088-1098. https://doi.org/10.1080/01635581.2017.1359318

Nascimento GGF, Locatelli J, Freitas PC, Silva GL (2000). Antibacterial activity of plant extracts and phytochemicals on antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Brazilian Journal of Microbiology 31:247-256. https://doi.org/10.1590/s1517-83822000000400003

Nawwar MAM, Hussein SAM, Merfort I (1994). Leaf phenolics of Punica granatum. Phytochemistry 37(4):1175-1177. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0031-9422(00)89552-7

Nazeam JA, Al-Shareef WA, Helmy MW, El-Haddad A (2020). Bioassay-guided isolation of potential bioactive constituents from pomegranate agrifood by-product. Food Chemistry 326:126993. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2020.126993

Nemati Z, Tehranifar A, Farsi M, Mirshamsi KA, Nemati H, Khayat M (2012). Evaluation of genetic diversity of Iranian pomegranate cultivars using fruit morphological characteristics and AFLP markers. Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca 40(1):261-268. https://doi.org/10.15835/nbha4017369

Neuhofer H, Witte L, Gorunovic M, Czygan F-C (1993). Alkaloids in the bark of Punica granatum L. (Pomegranate) from Yugoslavia. Die Pharmazie 48(5):389-391.

Nozohour Y, Golmohammadi R, Mirnejad R, Fartashvand M (2018). Antibacterial activity of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) seed and peel alcoholic extracts on Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from health centers. Journal of Applied Biotechnology Reports 5(1):32-36. https://doi.org/10.29252/jabr.01.01.06

Nuamsetti T, Dechayuenyong P, Tantipaibulvut S (2012). Antibacterial activity of pomegranate fruit peels and arils. ScienceAsia 38:319-322. https://doi.org/10.2306/scienceasia1513-1874.2012.38.319

Orhan E, Ercisli S, Esitken A, Sengul M (2014). Molecular and morphological characterization of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) genotypes sampled from Coruh valley in Turkey. Genetic and Molecular Research 13(3):6375-6382. https://doi.org/10.4238/2014.january.14.4

Ouachrif A, Khalki H, Chaib S, Mountassir M, Aboufatima R, Farouk L, Benharraf A, Chait A (2012). Comparative study of the anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive effects of two varieties of Punica granatum. Pharmaceutical Biology 50(4):429-438. https://doi.org/10.3109/13880209.2011.611142

Ozkan Y (2005). Investigations on physical and chemical characteristics of some pomegranate genotypes (Punica granatum L.) of Tokat province in Turkey. Asian Journal of Chemistry 17:939-942.

Pacheco-Palencia LA, Noratto G, Hingorani L, Talcott ST, Mertens-Talcott SU (2008). Protective effects of standardized pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) polyphenolic extract in ultraviolet-irradiated human skin fibroblasts. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 56(18):8434-8441. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf8005307

Pan L-H, Liu F, Luo S-Z, Luo J-P (2019). Pomegranate juice powder as sugar replacer enhanced quality and function of set yogurts: Structure, rheological property, antioxidant activity and in vitro bioaccessibility. LWT 115:108479. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2019.108479

Parsaeyan N, Mozaffari-Khosravi H, Mozayan MR (2012). Effect of pomegranate juice on paraoxonase enzyme activity in patients with type 2 diabetes. Iranian Journal of Diabetes and Obesity 4(1):26-31. https://doi.org/10.1186/2251-6581-11-11

Pasha C, Sayeed S, Ali S, Khan Z (2009). Anti-salmonella activity of selected medicinal plants. Turkish Journal of Biology 33:59-64.

Paul A, Radhakrishnan M (2020). Pomegranate seed oil in food industry: Extraction, characterization, and applications. Trends in Food Science and Technology 105:273-283. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tifs.2020.09.014

Pirzadeh M, Caporaso N, Rauf A, Shariati MA, Yessimbekov Z, Khan MU (2020). Pomegranate as a source of bioactive constituents: a review on their characterization, properties and applications. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition. https://doi.org/10.1080/10408398.2020.1749825

Pontonio E, Montemurro M, Pinto D, Marzani B, Trani A, Ferrara G, … Rizzello CG (2019). Lactic acid fermentation of pomegranate juice as a tool to improve antioxidant activity. Frontiers in Microbiology 10:1550. https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2019.01550

Qabaha K, Al-Rimawi F, Nusseibeh S, Abbadi J, Abu-Lafi S (2019). Phenolic and flavonoids analysis of pomegranate peel extracts and their anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Quality Assurance 10(1):60-65. https://doi.org/10.25258/ijpqa.10.1.9

Qnais EY, Elokda AS, Abu Ghalyun YY, Abdulla FA (2007). Antidiarrheal activity of the aqueous extract of Punica granatum (Pomegranate) peels. Pharmaceutical Biology 45(9):715-720. https://doi.org/10.1080/13880200701575304

Rahimi AM, Jafarpour M, Pessarakli M (2017). Morpho-pomological and chemical properties of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) cultivars in Iran. Journal of Plant Nutrition 40(10):1437-1442. https://doi.org/10.1080/01904167.2016.1269181

Rashidi A, Jafari-Menshadi F, Zinsaz A, Sadafi Z (2013). Effect of concentrated pomegranate juice consumption on glucose and lipid profile concentrations in type 2 diabetic patients. Zahedan Journal of Research in Medical Sciences 15(6):40-42.

Read E, Deseo MA, Hawes M, Rochfort S (2019). Identification of potentially cytotoxic phenolics present in pomegranates (Punica granatum L.). Animal Feed Science and Technology 251:187-197. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2019.03.012

Ridzwan N, Jumli MN, Baig AA, Rohin MAK (2020). Pomegranate-derived anthocyanin regulates MORs-cAMP/CREB-BDNF pathways in opioid-dependent models and improves cognitive impairments. Journal of Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine 11:478-488. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaim.2019.12.001

Rongai D, Pulcini P, Di Lernia G, Nota P, Preka P, Milano F (2019). Punicalagin content and antifungal activity of different pomegranate (Punica ganatum L.) genotypes. Horticulture 5(52):1-9. https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae5030052

Rosas-Burgos EC, Burgos-Hernandez A, Noguera-Artiaga L, Kacaniova M, Hernandez-Garcia F, Cardenas-Lopez JL, Carbonell-Barrachina AA (2017). Antimicrobial activity of pomegranate peel extracts as affected by cultivar. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 97(3):802-810. https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.7799

Rowayshed G, Salama A, Abul-Fadl M, Akila-Hamza S, Mohamed EA (2013). Nutritional and chemical evaluation for pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) fruit peel and seeds powders by products. Middle East Journal of Applied Sciences 3(4):169-179.

Sadeghian A, Ghorbani A, Mohamadi-Nejad A, Rakhshandeh H (2011). Antimicrobial activity of aqueous and methanolic extracts of pomegranate fruit skin. Avicenna Journal of Phytomedicine 1(2):67-73. https://doi.org/10.1078/0944-7113-00327

Sahafi SM, Goli SAH, Kadivar M, Varshosaz J, Shirvani A (2021). Pomegranate seed oil nanoemulsion enriched by α-tocopherol; the effect of environmental stresses and long-term storage on its physicochemical properties and oxidation stability. Food Chemistry 345:128759. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2020.128759

Saleh H, Golian A, Kermanshahi H, Mirakzehi MT (2017). Effects of dietary α-tocopherol acetate, pomegranate peel, and pomegranate peel extract on phenolic content, fatty acid composition, and meat quality of broiler chickens. Journal of Applied Animal Research 45(1):629-636. https://doi.org/10.1080/09712119.2016.1248841

Saleh H, Golian A, Kermanshahi H, Mirakzehi MT (2018). Antioxidant status and thigh meat quality of broiler chickens fed diet supplemented with α-tocopherolacetate pomegranate pomace and pomegranate pomace extract. Italian Journal of Animal Science 17(2):386-395. https://doi.org/10.1080/1828051x.2017.1362966

Salgado L, Melgarejo P, Meseguer I, Sanchez M (2009). Antimicrobial activity of crude extracts from pomegranate (Punica granatum L.). Acta Hort 818:257-264. https://doi.org/10.17660/actahortic.2009.818.38

Sarkaki A, Yaghoub F, Hashemi Sh, Rafiei Rad M (2015). Pomegranate seed hydroalcoholic extract improves memory deficits in ovariectomized rats with permanent cerebral hypoperfusion/ischemia. Avicenna Journal of Phytomedicine 5(1):43-55.

Sartippour MR, Seeram NP, Rao JY, Moro A, Harris DM, Henning SM (2008). Ellagitannin-rich pomegranate extract inhibits angiogenesis in prostate cancer in vitro and in vivo. International Journal of Oncology 32:475-480. https://doi.org/10.3892/ijo.32.2.475

Schubert SY, Lansky EP, Neeman I (1999). Antioxidant and eicosanoid enzyme inhibition properties of pomegranate seed oil and fermented juice flavonoids. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 66(1):11-17. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0378-8741(98)00222-0

Shafie MM, Rajabipour A, Castro-Garcia S, Jimenez-Jimenez F, Mobli H (2015). Effect of fruit properties on pomegranate bruising. International Journal of Food Properties 18(8):1837-1846. https://doi.org/10.1080/10942912.2014.948188

Shahid M, Shahid-ul-Islam Rather LJ, Manzoor N, Mohammad F (2019). Simultaneous shade development, antibacterial, and antifungal functionalization of wool using Punica granatum L. peel extract as a source of textile dye. Journal of Natural Fibers 16(4):555-566. https://doi.org/10.1080/15440478.2018.1428846

Shahrajabian MH, SunW, Soleymani A, Cheng Q (2020a). Traditional herbal medicines to overcome stress, anxiety and improve mental health in outbreaks of human coronaviruses. Phytotherapy Research 2020(1):1-11. https://doi.org/10.1002/ptr.6888

Shahrajabian MH, Sun W, Cheng Q (2020b). Exploring Artemisia annua L., artemisinin and its derivatives from traditional Chinese wonder medicinal science. Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca 48(4):1719-1741. https://doi.org/10.15835/nbha48412002

Shahrajabian MH, Sun W, Cheng Q (2020c). Chemical components and pharmacological benefits of basil (Ocimum basilicum): a review. International Journal of Food Properties 23(1):1961-1970. https://doi.org/10.1080/10942912.2020.1828456

Shahrajabian MH, Sun W, Cheng Q(2020d). Traditional herbal medicine for the prevention and treatment of cold and flu in the autumn of 2020, overlapped with Covid-19. Natural Product Communications 15(8):1-10. https://doi.org/10.1177/1934578x20951431

Shahrajabian MH, Sun W, Cheng Q (2020e). Chinese star anise (Illicium verum) and pyrethrum (Chrysanthemum cinerariifolium) as natural alternatives for organic farming and health care- A review. Australian Journal of Crop Science 14(03):517-523. https://doi.org/10.21475/ajcs.20.14.03.p2209

Shahrajabian MH, Sun W, Chen Q (2021). Improving health benefits with considering traditional and modern health benefits of Peganum harmala. Clinical Phyto-science 7(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s40816-021-00255-7

Shakhmatov EG, Makarova EN, Belyy VA (2019). Structural studies of biologically active pectin-containing polysaccharides of pomegranate Punica granatum. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules 122:29-36. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2018.10.146

Shams Ardekani MR, Hajimahmoodi M, Oveisi MR, Sadeghi N, Jannat B, Ranjbar AM, Gholam N, Moridi T (2011). Comparative antioxidant activity and total flavonoids content of Persian pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) cultivars. Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research 10(3):519-524.

Sharma KK, Jadhav VT, Sharma J (2011). Present status of pomegranate bacterial blight caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. punicae and its management. Acta Horticulturae 890:513-522. https://doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.2011.890.72

Sharma P, McClees S, Afaq F (2017). Pomegranate for prevention and treatment of cancer: an update. Molecules 22:177. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22010177

Sharma K, Akansha, Chauhan ES (2018). Comparative studies of proximate, mineral and phytochemical compositions of pomegranate (Punica granatum) in peel, seed and whole fruit powder. International Journal of Food Science and Nutrition 3(2):192-196.

Sheikh Asadi M, Mirghazanfari SM, Dadpay M, Nassireslami E (2018). Evaluation of wound healing activities of pomegranate (Punica granatum- Lythraceae) peel and pulp. Journal of Research in Medical and Dental Science 6(3):230-236.

Singh RP, ChidambaraMurthy KN, Jayaprakasha GK (2002). Studies on the antioxidant activity of pomegranate (Punica granatum) peel and seed extracts using in vitro models. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 50(1):81-86. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf010865b

Smaoui S, Hlima HB, Mtibaa AC, Fourati M, Sellem I, Elhadef K, Ennouri K, Mellouli L (2019). Pomegranate peel as phenolic compounds source: Advanced analytical strategies and practical use in meat products. Meat Science 158:107914. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2019.107914

Smith AD, George NS, Cheung L, Bhagavathy GV, Luthria DL, JohnKM, Bhagwat AA (2020). Pomegranate peel extract reduced colonic damage and bacterial translocation in a mouse model of infectious colitis induced by Citrobacter rodentium. Nutrition Research 73:27-37. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nutres.2019.11.001

Sohrab G, Nasrollahzadeh J, Zand H, AmiriZ, Tohidi M, Kimiagar M (2014). Effects of pomegranate juice consumption on inflammatory markers in patients with type 2 diabetes: A randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Journal of Research in Medical Sciences 19:215-220. https://doi.org/10.1089/met.2017.0146

Soloklui AA, Ershadi A, Fallahi E (2012). Evaluation of cold hardiness in seven Iranian commercial pomegranate (Punica granatumL.) cultivars. HortScience 47:1821-1825. https://doi.org/10.21273/hortsci.47.12.1821

Sreekumar S, Sithul H, Muraleedharan P, Azeez JM, Sreeharshan S (2014). Pomegranate fruit as a rich source of biologically active compounds. BioMed Research International 686921:1-12. https://doi.org/10.1155/2014/686921

Stover ED, Mercure Eric W (2007). The pomegranate: a new look at the fruit of paradise. HortScience 42(5):1088-1092. https://doi.org/10.21273/hortsci.42.5.1088

Sturgeon SR, Ronnenberg AG (2010). Pomegranate and breast cancer: possible mechanisms of prevention. Nutrition Reviews 68(2):122-128. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1753-4887.2009.00268.x

Song B, Li J, Li J (2016). Pomegranate peel extract polyphenols induced apoptosis in human hepatoma cells by mitochondrial pathway. Food and Chemical Toxicology 93:158-166. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2016.04.020

Sun W, Shahrajabian MH, Cheng Q (2021a). Fenugreek cultivation with emphasis on historical aspects and its uses in traditional medicine and modern pharmaceutical science. Mini Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry 21(6). https://doi.org/10.2174/1389557520666201127104907

Sun W, Shahrajabian MH, Cheng Q (2021b). Barberry (Berberis vulgaris), a medicinal fruit and food with traditional and modern pharmaceutical uses. Israel Journal of Plant Sciences 68(1-2):1-11. https://doi.org/10.1163/22238980-bja10019

Sun W, Shahrajabian MH, Cheng Q (2021c). Health benefits of wolfberry (Gou Qi Zi) on the basis of ancient Chinese herbalism and western modern medicine. Avicenna Journal of Phytomedicine 11(2):109-119.

Sundararajan A, Ganapathy R, Huan L, Dunlap JR, Webby RJ (2010). Influenza virus variation in susceptibility to inactivation by pomegranate polyphenols is determined by envelope glycoproteins. Antiviral Research 88(1):1-9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.antiviral.2010.06.014

Surek E, Nilufer-Erdil D (2014). Changes in phenolics and antioxidant activity at each step of processing from pomegranate into nectar. International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition 65(2):194-202. https://doi.org/10.3109/09637486.2013.854745

Syed DN, Malik A, Hadi N, Sarfaraz S, Afaq F, Mukhtar H (2006). Photo-chemo preventive effect of pomegranate fruit extract on UVA-mediated activation on cellular pathways in normal human epidermal keratinocytes. Photochemistry and Photobiology 82:398-405. https://doi.org/10.1562/2005-06-23-ra-589

Taheri Rouhi SZ, SarkerMdMR, Rahmat A, Alkahtani SA, Othman F (2017). The effect of pomegranate fresh juice versus pomegranate seed powder on metabolic indices, lipid profile, inflammatory biomarkers, and the histopathology of pancreatic islets of Langerhans in streptozotocin-nicotinamide induced type 2 diabetic Sprague-Dawley rats. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 17:156. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12906-017-1724-1

Tanaka T, Nonaka G-I, Nishioka I (1986). Tannins and related compounds. XL. Revision of the structures of punicalin and punicalagin, and isolation and characterization of 2-O-galloylpunicalin from the bark of Punica granatum L. Chemical and Pharmaceutical Bulletin 34(2):650-655. https://doi.org/10.1248/cpb.34.650

Tanveer A, Farooq U, Akram K, Haya Z, Shafi A, Nazar H, Ahmad Z (2015). Pomegranate extracts: A natural preventive measure against spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms. Food Reviews International 31(1):29-51. https://doi.org/10.1080/87559129.2014.961074

Tatari M, Jadidi E, Shahmansouri E (2020). Study of some physiological responses of different pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) cultivars under drought stress to screen for drought tolerance. International Journal of Fruit Science. https://doi.org/10.1080/15538362.2020.1772177

Tavassoli-Hojjati S, Aliasghar E, Babaki FA, Emadi F, Parsa M, Tavajohi S, … Ostad SN (2014). Pomegranate juice (Punica granatum): A new storage medium for avulsed teeth. Journal of Dentistry, Tehran University of Medical Sciences 11(2):225-232.

Topalovic A, Knezevic M, Gacnik S, Mikulic-Petkovsek M (2020). Detailed chemical composition of juice from autochthonous pomegranate genotypes (Punica granatum L.) grown in different locations in Montenegro. Food Chemistry 330:127261. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2020.127261

Tozzi F, Legua P, Martinez-Nicolas JJ, Nunez-GomezD, Giordani E, Melgarejo P (2020). Morphological and nutraceutical characterization of six pomegranate cultivars of global commercial interest. Scientia Horticulturae 272:109557. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scienta.2020.109557

Turk G, Sonmez M, Aydin M, Yuce A, Gur S, Yuksel M, Aksu EH, Aksoy H (2008). Effects of pomegranate juice consumption on sperm quality, spermatogenic cell density, antioxidant activity and testosterone level in male rats. Clinical Nutrition 27:289-296. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clnu.2007.12.006

Turk, G, Sonmez M, Ceribasi AO, Yuce A, Atessahin A (2010). Attenuation of cyclosporine A-induced testicular and spermatozoal damages associated with oxidative stress by ellagic acid. International Immunopharmacology 10(2):177-182. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.intimp.2009.10.013

Turrini F, Zunin P, Catena S, Villa C, Alfei S, Boggia R (2019). Traditional or hydro-diffusion and gravity microwave coupled with ultrasound as green technologies for the valorization of pomegranate external peels. Food and Bioproducts Processing 117:30-37. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fbp.2019.06.014

Usta C, Ozdemir S,Schiariti M, Puddu PE (2013). The pharmacological use of ellagic acid-rich pomegranate fruit. International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition 64(7):907-913. https://doi.org/10.3109/09637486.2013.798268

Valdes-Sustaita B, Estrada-Camarena E, Gonzalez-Trujano ME, Lopez-Rubalcava C (2021). Estrogen receptors-β and serotonin mediate the antidepressant-like effect of an aqueous extract of pomegranate in ovariectomized rats. Neurochemistry International 142:104904. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuint.2020.104904

Verma N, Mohanty A, Lal A (2010). Pomegranate genetics resources and germplasm conservation: a review. Fruit, Vegetable and Cereal Science and Biotechnology 4(2):120-125.

Waly MI, Al-Rawahi AS, Al Riyami M, Al-kindi MA, Al-Issaei HK, Farooq SA, Al-Alawi A, Rahman MS (2014). Amelioration of azoxymethane induced carcinogenesis by reducing oxidative stress in rat colon by natural extracts. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 14:60. https://doi.org/10.1186/1472-6882-14-60

Wang R-F, Xie W-D, Zhang Z (2004). Bioactive compounds from the seeds of Punica granatum (pomegranate). Journal of Natural Products 67(12):2096-2098. https://doi.org/10.1021/np0498051

Wang L, Ho J, Glackin C, Martins-Green M (2012). Specific pomegranate juice components as potential inhibitors of prostate cancer metastasis. Translational Oncology 5(5):344-355. https://doi.org/10.1593/tlo.12190

Wang P, Zhang Q, Hou H, Liu Z, Wang L, Rasekhmagham R, Kord-Varkaneh H, Santos HO, Yao G (2020). The effects of pomegranate supplementation on biomarkers of inflammation and endothelial dysfunction: A meta-analysis and systematic review. Complementary Therapies in Medicine 49:102358. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ctim.2020.102358

Wang B, Guo C, Liu Y, Han G, Li Y, Zhang Y, Xu H, Chen D (2020). Novel nano-pomegranates based on astragalus polysaccharides for targeting ERα-positive breast cancer and multidrug resistance. Drug Delivery 27(1):607-621. https://doi.org/10.1080/10717544.2020.1754529

Wu Y, Zhu C-P, Zhang Y, Li Y, Sun J-R (2019). Immunomodulatory and antioxidant effects of pomegranate peel polysaccharides on immunosuppressed mice. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules 137:504-511. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2019.06.139

Xu K, Zhu Z-Y, Kim C, Yamahara MS, Li Y (2009). Pomegranate flower ameliorates fatty liver in an animal model of type 2 diabetes and obesity. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 123(2):280-287. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2009.03.035

Xu J, Zhao Y, Aisa HA (2017). Anti-inflammatory effect of pomegranate flower in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages. Pharmaceutical Biology 55(1):2095-2101. https://doi.org/10.1080/13880209.2017.1357737

Yan L, Zhou X, Shi L, Shalimu D, Ma C, Liu Y (2017). Phenolic profiles and antioxidant activities of six Chinese pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) cultivars. International Journal of Food Properties 20(1):S94-S107. https://doi.org/10.1080/10942912.2017.1289960

Yang X, Nisar T, Hou Y, Gou X, Sun L, Guo Y (2018). Pomegranate peel pectin can be used as an effective emulsifier. Food Hydrocolloids 85:30-38. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodhyd.2018.06.042

Yayla M, Cetin D, Adali Y, Aksu Kilicle P, Toktay E (2018). Potential therapeutic effect of pomegranate seed oil on ovarian ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats. Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences 21:1262-1268.

Yemis GP, Bach S, Delaquis P (2019). Antibacterial activity of polyphenol-rich pomegranate peel extract against Cronobacter sakazakii. International Journal of Food Properties 22(1):985-993. https://doi.org/10.1080/10942912.2019.1622564

Yisimayili Z, Abdulla R, Tian Q, Wang Y, Chen M, Sun Z, … Huang C (2019). A comprehensive study of pomegranate flowers polyphenols and metabolites in rat biological samples by high-performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Journal of Chromatography A 1604:460472. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chroma.2019.460472

Yogeeta S, Ragavender HRB, Devaki T (2007). Antihepatotoxic effect of Punica granatum. Acetone extract against isoniazid- and rifampicin-induced hepatotoxicity. Pharmaceutical Biology 45(8):631-637. https://doi.org/10.1080/13880200701538963

Yoshimura M, Watanabe Y, Kasai K, Yamakoshi J, Koga T (2005). Inhibitory effect of an ellagic acid-rich pomegranate extracts on tyrosinase activity and ultraviolet-induced pigmentation. Bioscience, Biotechnology and Biochemistry 69:2368-2373. https://doi.org/10.1271/bbb.69.2368

Zhang J, Zhan B, Yao X, Gao Y, Song J (1995). Antiviral activity of tannin from the pericarp of Punica granatum L. against genital Herpes virus in vitro. China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica 20(9):556-558. https://doi.org/10.4268/cjcmm20111432

Zhang Q, Jia D, Yao K (2007). Antiliperoxidant activity of pomegranate peel extracts on lard. Natural Product Research 21(3):211-216. https://doi.org/10.1080/14786410601130422

Zhang L, Fu Q, Zhang Y (2011). Composition of anthocyanins in pomegranate flowers and their antioxidant activity. Food Chemistry 127:1444-1449. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2011.01.077

Zhuang S, Li Y, Jia S, Hong H, Liu Y, Luo Y (2019). Effects of pomegranate peel extract on quality and microbiota composition of bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis) fillets during chilled storage. Food Microbiology 82:445-454. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fm.2019.03.019




How to Cite

SHAHRAJABIAN, M. H. ., SUN, W. ., & CHENG, Q. . (2021). Pomegranate, fruit of the desert, a functional food, and a healthy diet. Notulae Scientia Biologicae, 13(3), 11085. https://doi.org/10.15835/nsb13311085



Review articles
DOI: 10.15835/nsb13311085

Most read articles by the same author(s)