GC-MS based metabolite profiling and antioxidant activity of solvent extracts of Allium chinense G Don leaves (2021-04-23)
Allium chinense, a main source of “Xiebai” drug in Chinese traditional medicine and commonly known as Ganoderma lucidum belongs to the family Amaryllidaceae. The main focus of this research was to quantify the secondary metabolites, antioxidant potential and study the GC- MS based metabolite profile of different solvent leaf extracts of A. chinense. The reports on the bioactive compounds of A. chinense leaves are still insufficient compared to the bulb; hence this study was carried out to understand the bioactive compounds present in A. chinense leaves using different solvents of varying polarity. Our investigation showed that the ethanol extract contained the highest saponin, flavonoid, phenol, and DPPH scavenging activity. Further, metabolite profiling revealed a total of forty-eight compounds, indicating a diverse range of phytochemicals present in the four extracts. The highest number of compounds were observed in ethanol extract (15) followed by chloroform extract (13), petroleum ether extract (11) and methanol extract (9). Some of the major compounds identified in the four solvents are octacosane (27.11%), heptadecane (19.66%), eicosane (18.51%), ethyl palmitate (18.50%), phytol (17.68%) and phytol acetate (17.30%). In conclusion, this study highlights that A. chinense leaf extracts contain high saponins, terpenes and alkanes which could be a potential source of a new beneficial drug.
Evaluation of M3 lines of sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) for vegetative parameters (2021-06-11)
Vegetative parameters of eight M3 (third mutant generation) lines of sesame were evaluated under rain fed condition. The seeds of the lines were sown alongside their respective controls using a randomized complete block design. The eight lines were generated from three parental stocks: NCRIBEN-04E (V1), NCRIBEN-01M (V2) and NCRIBEN-03L (V3). The three parental stocks were exposed to different doses of gamma irradiation from cobalt-60 source. 04E-550-G2-3 had the highest plant height (57.40) at the 6th week which was significantly different (P<0.05) from the three checks. 03L-450-G2-2 had the highest petiole length (12.45cm) which was significantly different (P<0.05) from the checks except check three (12.25cm) which was not significantly different (P>0.05). 03L-450-G1-2 had the highest number of leaves (91) and consequently highest number of branches (5.60). Although the number of leaves were significantly different (P<0.05) from Check three (54.60), there was no significant difference (P>0.05) between the number of branches and check three (5.40). The results obtained for vegetative parameters of M3 lines of sesame suggests that some of the genotypes could be used as potential parents for future breeding programmes aimed at improving sesame lines.
Tubercles in cattle carcasses and risk behaviours for zoonotic tuberculosis transmission among workers in a municipal slaughterhouse (2021-05-28)
Prevalence of zoonotic tuberculosis in livestock in Nigeria contributes substantially to TB incidence among the population at risk. This study sought for tubercles in cattle carcasses and assessed knowledge and risk behaviours for zoonotic tuberculosis transmission among workers in Ikpa slaughter, Nsukka, Nigeria. Tubercle samples collected during meat inspection of 420 cattle carcasses were subjected to Ziehl Neelson stain. Questionnaire was issued to 50 slaughterhouse workers and data generated analysed with STATA 12 at p<α (0.05). The results showed 0.71% (3/420) prevalence of tubercles that translated to 0.79% (3/382), 0.81% (3/372), 0.79% (2/379) among the males, adults and White Fulani breeds, respectively. Among the respondents, 64% (32/50) had good knowledge of the disease. Knowledge of ZTB was significantly associated with level of education (P<0.05). Practices that expose to zoonotic tuberculosis infection were found among 48% of the participants. Practices that expose to the infection was found to be significantly associated with the level of education (P<0.05). Tubercles were prevalent in cattle carcasses in Ikpa slaughterhouse. Workers in the place need in-depth enlightenment on ZTB and its modes of transmission to reduce human exposure to the disease.
Intraspecific diversity of Vigna subterranea accessions obtained from multinational sources (2021-05-05)
Bambara groundnut is a legume with balanced meal. The present study investigated agro-morphological diversity of 61 Bambara groundnut accessions whose passport data were from 21 countries. The Genetic Resources Centre (GRC), International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), Ibadan, Nigeria provided the 61 accessions. The accessions were established in row plots of ten plants on the field at the Centre for Ecological studies, University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria. Seventeen quantitative and two qualitative traits were recorded from the sampling units for each accession. Descriptive and multivariate statistical analysis were employed on the 61 x 19 matrix mean data. Significant variation exists among the 61 accessions for the 19 descriptors. Mean genetic similarity among the 61 accessions was 0.78, the least (0.48) similarity was between TVSu1750 and TVSu250 and the highest (0.92) was between TVSu391 and TVSu415. TVSu1843 flowered earliest at 35 days. The 61 accessions were grouped into three main clusters. TVSu1964 and two accessions from Malawi (TVSu1748 and TVSu1750) in cluster III had high grain yield. Accessions in cluster II were significant for both vigour and grain yield. Striking uniformity and diversity existed among accessions from the same country. Genetic improvement in vigour and grain yield of Bambara groundnut is possible within each country.
Regeneration of Hemidesmus indicus (L.) R. Br. using in vitro nodes: an alternative method for efficient multiplication of shoots (2021-05-31)
In vivo nodes of Hemidesmus indicus (L.) R. Br. induced healthy multiple shoots with branching in our earlier studies and thus in the present study, potency of in vitro nodes to regenerate shoots was evaluated. In vitro nodes were excised from eight-week-old shoots and placed in Murashige and Skoog’s (MS) medium fortified with sucrose (3%) and different concentrations of 6-benzyladenine (BA) and kinetin (Kn). After eight weeks, optimum of 5.42 ± 0.36 shoots with 100% response were regenerated in medium supplemented with BA (10 µM) and Kn (5 µM). These healthy shoots were placed in full, half and quarter strengths of liquid MS medium fortified with sucrose (1%) and α-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA, 1-25 µM) for rooting. Among all the strengths of MS medium, full strength MS medium having 8 µM NAA formed maximum of 3.42 ± 0.55 roots (91.67% response) within four weeks. The protocol is in continuation with earlier study and it was confirmed that a single in vivo nodal explant can regenerate around 385 healthy elongated shoots within 4 months, which will help in mass-propagation of the species.
Antimalarial phytochemicals as inhibitors against COVID-19 ACE2 receptor: Computational screening (2021-04-23)
Quinine, artemisinin, febrifugine, brusatol, chaparrin tehranolide, glaucarubin, sergeoliden, and yingzhaosu A, nine antimalarial phytochemicals, were the focus of an in-silico analysis aimed at discovering new therapeutic molecules against COVID-19 infection. The screening of these molecules included a molecular docking approach within the Angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE2) receptor. In addition, drug-likeness, ADMET analysis and pharmacophore mapping have been performed. The result of the docking process was based on the energy binding values as well as the number and type of interactions established with the receptor active site residues, which were compared with those of co-crystallized ligand and chloroquine. Febrifugine showed the most interesting energetic and interactive activities that were closer to the reference molecule and better than those of chloroquine. Whereas artemisinin has produced results that are the closest to those of chloroquine. Similarly, drug-likeness and ADMET analysis have shown that febrifugine and artemisinin check most of the filters and pharmacokinetic properties required for the choice of an effective therapeutic molecule. A pharmacophore model was designed on the basis of a training set consisting of the most relevant molecules; it has one metal ligator cum hydrophobic region cum hydrogen bond acceptor, one hydrogen bond acceptor cum metal ligator and one hydrophobic aromatic ring. This model is proposed to be used for the in-silico discovery of new therapeutic molecules against coronavirus.
Growth-yield performances and partial economic analysis of sugarcane under different planting methods (2021-05-27)
Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) is an important tropical crop around the world, involving in Indonesia, however low productivity is still problem for it. The study was aimed to investigate effect of different planting methods on improving cane growth-yield performances and their partial economic analysis. The study was conducted at Gedangdowo, Jepon, Blora District, Central Java, Indonesia from 2015-2017 at initial planting (IP) to sugarcane ratoon SR-1 and SR-2. Material used was qualified seeds of PS.862 variety. Three planting methods were tested: 1) double trench system (DTS) with 50 cm distance between trench and 135 cm distance between double trenches; 2) single trench system (STS) with 120 cm distance of canter to center (CTC) and 3) STS with 110 cm distance of CTC. The experiment was arranged in randomized complete block design (RCBD) with 6 replications. Results of the study revealed that DTS 50/135 was the most appropriate planting method inducing higher cane productivity up to 129.12 t/ha in IP, then increased up to 134.1 t/ha in SR-1 and declined down to 114.1 t/ha in SR-2. Percentage of cane productivity in DTS 50/135 increased up to 40.8% in IP, 51.1% in SR-1 and 64.6% in SR-2. Higher R/C ratio up to 1.99 and 1.94 was performed by STS 120 followed by DTS 50/135. Increasing R/C ratio noted in STS 120 and DTS 50/135 was 18.3 and 21.3%, respectively on SR-1 compared to STS 110. The planting method can be applied to improve sugarcane productivity and its R/C ratio for other varieties.
Hog plums: Its importance, potentials and future prospects (2021-04-23)
Hog plums, scientifically known as Spondias mombin are medicinal plants that are rich in nutrients and antioxidants, and are of great importance in the food/agricultural industries and the health sector. In the food industries, it is an important fruit crop that can be eaten raw, juiced and processed for making jam, ice cream and jellies, and also provides farmers an alternative feeding material for lactating ruminants to help in galactogenesis and lactopoiesis. In the health sector, hog plums fruit, leaves and stem extract possess antimicrobial, cytotoxic, anti-tyrosinase, diuretic and febrifuge activities for the treatment of certain disease conditions, and it can be effectively preserved by wax coating of the fruits. Methanolic extract of Spondias contain methyl gallate, a substance that has the potential to facilitate apoptotic cell death in human glioblastoma, lung, and breast cancer Hog plums are also rich in vitamins, it strengthens the immune system, protects against heart disease, and stimulates the production of collagen which keeps the body healthy. It is a plant that has obvious and promising health benefits, and as such more research into its properties is advisable. Preservation of hog plum can be achieved by wax coating, retardation of ripening and senescence, and application of growth regulators.
Prevalence of Campylobacter spp. and antibiotics resistant E. coli on poultry carcasses and handlers’ hands at Ikpa slaughter, Nsukka, Nigeria (2021-06-02)
Handling and consumption of contaminated meat can lead to food poisoning and acquisition of antibiotics resistance genes. This study determined the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. and antibiotics resistant E. coli on poultry carcasses and handler’s hands at Ikpa slaughter, Nsukka. Swabs collected from carcass surfaces and handler’s hands were cultured and isolates were identified with phenotypic and molecular methods. Coliform enumeration, antibiotics susceptibility testing and data analysis were done. Out of 204 samples, 29 (14.2%) were Campylobacter positive, consisting of C. jejuni (27.6%) and C. coli (72.4%) while another 67 samples yielded 23 (34.4%) positive E. coli. Coliform counts were 3.2x103cfu cm-2 and 1.06x103cfu cm-2for unwashed and washed carcasses, 2.5x105 cfu cm-2 and 0.5x104 cfu cm-2 for unwashed and washed handlers’ hands respectively. E. coli was isolated from 45 and 22% of unwashed and washed carcasses respectively and Campylobacter from 16% of unwashed carcasses only. One and five sticks swabbing methods yielded E. coli in 20.5 and 60.9% and Campylobacter in 12 and 83.3% of carcass samples respectively. Only E. coli was detected in 10 (90.0%) of the unwashed hands. E. coli isolates were multi drug-resistant at 80% with index >0.2 and a range of 70 -100% resistant to enrofloxacin, tetracycline, erythromycin, streptomycin and ampicillin; 30 - 50% to gentamycin, chloramphenicol and ciprofloxacin while; 10% were to cephtriazone and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid. Prevalence of Campylobacter and antibiotics resistant E. coli spp. were significantly associated (P<0.05) with status of processor’s hands and swabbing methods hence, the public health risk and the need for improved hygiene.
Vincetoxicum indicum (Burm.f.) Mabb. - a case of transient abnormal secondary thickening in stem (2021-04-23)
Vincetoxicum indicum (Burm.f.) Mabb. (Syn. Tylophora indica (Burm.f.) Merr., T. asthmatica W. &A.), an important twining medicinal plant of India, was found to show a transient anomalous secondary thickening to facilitate the twisting of stem around a support. The very young stem had a continuous primary xylem cylinder, the protoxylem of which differentiated to two large bundles on the opposing sides and many smaller bundles in between. In the initial stages of maturation, the cambium outside the two large protoxylem groups behaved abnormally in producing more phloem outwards and little or no secondary xylem inwards to produce two wedge shaped phloem groups on opposite sides. The production of crescent shaped secondary xylem on the other two sides which fell at a right-angled plane resulted in bulging of these sides away from the anomalous cambium to create a rectangular stem having two broad sides which were used as the facing sides of stem against a support. As soon as the twisting nature was established, the anomaly was reversed and the anomalous cambial patches started behaving normally to produce a complete ring of secondary xylem. As this abnormal behaviour happened only during the twisting of stem, this is considered as an adaptational anomalous secondary thickening.
Standardization of time of budding and sweet orange cultivars on Carrizo rootstock (2021-06-11)
In sexual propagation of citrus long juvenility, genetic impurity and self incompatibility are the major problems. Hence the use of suitable rootstock is a pre-requisite in citrus propagation. Now a days, the cultivation of sweet orange is boosting up among citrus cultivation. Due to this, there is a great need for the evaluation of sweet orange cultivars onto an appropriate rootstock. A research trial was carried out in consideration with ‘Blood Red’, ‘Jaffa’ and ‘Valencia Late’ sweet orange cultivars T-budded on Carrizo rootstock at five different intervals of first week of July, August, September, October and February. The treatments were replicated thrice and statistically arranged in factorial randomized complete block design. As a result of the study significant variations were noticed in the performance of cultivars under study at various budding intervals. Out of the sweet orange cultivars ‘Blood Red’ was the first to initiate sprouting in 28.30 days with healing of bud union in 31.39 days, maximum survival (89.40%), plant height (22.93 cm), number of branches buddling-1 (1.14), leaf total nitrogen (1.89%), phosphorus (0.07%) and potassium (1.26%). Among budding intervals, the plants budded on the first week of September were the first to sprout in 26.46 days achieving maximum (23.04 cm) plant height, branches buddling-1 (1.15) root formation of (5.98 cm3) volume and survival percentage (91.99). Commercially, ‘Blood Red’ sweet orange cultivar budded in the first week of September can be cultivated for superior progeny.
Organic waste utilization and urban food waste composting strategies in China - A review (2021-04-23)
Food loss may occur in production, storage, transport, and processing, which are the stages of the value chain with the lowest returns. The current searching was done by the keywords in main indexing systems including PubMed/MEDLINE, Scopus, and Institute for Scientific Information Web of Science as well as the search engine of Google Scholar. The most important points challenging areas that represent opportunities for stakeholders to look into in China are, put in place suitable economic incentives to encourage restaurants to get more involved in the formal system, create a comprehensive regulation system to benefit all relevant stakeholders by clearly defining their respective roles and responsibilities, which is necessary for the proper functioning of the whole system. In China, the most important regulations, policies and plans are regulations on safety issues of food waste treatment, detailed countermeasures on organizing, educating, supervising, and inspecting the work on food waste reduction in China, and detailed plant for household waste collection and treatment, issued by Chinese government, state council, and ministry of environmental protection. Setting national goals, awareness-raising campaigns, strict and appropriate regulation, stakeholder engagement, biorefinery and food waste recycling to animal feed are important strategies for better waste management. The most important food waste management practices in China are source separation, animal feed, rendering, composting, co-digestion, anaerobic digestion, incineration, landfill, and etc. Understanding social factors influencing household behavior is utmost importance; public education and specific communication highly contribute to improve recycling.
Anti-proliferating activity of some toxic and medicinal plants used by Wancho tribe of Arunachal Pradesh, India (2021-05-12)
Medicinal plants extend to show an imperative role in the rural healthcare system of developing countries, where herbal medicine has a continuous history of long use. Field studies were conducted following standard ethnobotanical techniques to collect information on the use of toxic and medicinal plants used by the Wancho tribe of Arunachal Pradesh. Vigna radiata was used as a plant model in this study to investigate the antiproliferative property of selected medicinal plant extracts. Green gram seedling root apical meristem cells were used to determine the inhibition of germination and slow growth. Different concentrations of plant extract (20, 50, 250 and 500 µg/ml) were treated in a test tube containing the green gram seeds (n=5) on time dependent manner. Colchicine (20 mg/ml) was used as a standard drug for the growth retardation of green gram seedlings, while the distilled water group served as negative control. Germination test of Vigna radiata L. was performed according to ISTA (International Rules for Seed Testing) rules. The present study concludes that the methanolic plant extracts of all the collected plants significantly inhibited the rate of seed germination and seedling growth at dose dependent manner. It signifies that the use of Phlogacanthus parviflorus and Mikania micrantha in high concentrations may be potentially therapeutic for inhibiting the cell cycle in eukaryotic organisms.
Nutritional composition and FT-IR functional group analysis of pharaoh cuttlefish (Sepia pharaonis) from Puducherry coastal waters, India (2021-05-06)
The nutritional composition and functional groups of the edible portion of the most often utilized cuttlefish, Sepia pharaonis of Puducherry coastal waters, India was evaluated. Moisture is the basic component of the mantle with 82.45±0.15% followed by a good source of 14.5±0.1% protein. The ash, lipid, and carbohydrates were found less than 1%. The energetic value of the mantle of cuttlefish S. pharaonis is calculated as 6.06 KJ/g. Na and K were found in considerable quantities of 2772 and 3247 mg/kg respectively and the Na/K ratio (0.85) was less than 1. The amount of Zn, Mn, B, Al, Sr, and As was found to be relatively high when compared to a low or insignificant level of Cu, Mo, Se, Cr, Ni, Pb, and Hg. The fatty acid profile analysis revealed that it contains 71.67% saturated fatty acids,17.87% polyunsaturated fatty acids and 10.38% monounsaturated fatty acids. In all three types, the C16:0 palmitic acid (40.29%), C18:0 stearic acid (16.54%), and C22:6 docosahexaenoic acid (13.52%) represented as the dominant fatty acids. The FT-IR analysis disclosed the presence of various functional groups belonging to protein, lipids, and polysaccharides. Thus, the present study proved that the cuttlefish S. pharaonis is considered as a potential nutraceutical and the right choice of food for greater and wider human consumption.
Moth (Insecta: Lepidoptera) fauna of Sariska Tiger Reserve, Rajasthan, India (2021-05-19)
Survey to assess moth diversity was carried out in Sariska Tiger Reserve of Rajasthan in 2019 from June to November. Total 16 species were recorded under 15 genera, belonging to 5 families for the first time from Sariska Tiger Reserve. Of these, 12 species viz. Eudocima materna Linnaeus, 1767; Eudocima phalonia Linnaeus, 1763; Dysgonia stuposa (Fabricius, 1794); Euproctis divisia Walker, 1855; Achaea janata Linnaeus, 1758; Acherontia styx Westwood, 1847; Daphnis nerii Linnaeus, 1758; Hippotion rosetta (Swinhoe, 1892); Agrius convolvuli Linnaeus, 1758; Nephele hespera Fabricius, 1775; Theretra oldenlandiae (Fabricius, 1775); Caligula lindia Moore, 1865 were first time reports from the state. Moth species were collected with the help of a light sheet system operated every night from 9:00 pm to 2:00 am. Ethyl acetate fumes were used to kill collected speciemens and processed as per standard strategies in Lepidopterology. The identification of moths was carried out with the help of identification keys, standard reference keys. Family Erebidae and Sphingidae are represented by six species each, followed by Saturniidae represented by two species, Noctuidae and Crambidae represented by one species each. This study will improve our understanding of Sariska’s biodiversity and be used to develop strategies for the conservation of moth diversity.
Apomictic development during different flower development stages in Crataegus tanacetifolia (Lam.) Pers., endemic to Turkey (2021-05-05)
In this study, aposporic apomictic development and its relation to the different flower development stages were investigated by light and fluorescence microscopy in Crataegus tanacetifolia (Lam.) Pers. (Rosaceae). At pre-anthesis stage, aposporic initial cell differentiated at the somatic nucellus tissue shortly after the megaspore mother cell formation. The volume of aposporic initial cell increased during the generation of dyad and megaspore tetrad respectively by regular meiosis. At this stage, linear megaspore tetrad and vacuolated aposporic initial cell were located side by side into the same ovule. At anthesis stage, before pollination, four nucleated aposporic embryo sac was formed while sexual development came to end by atrophy of megaspores completely. At this stage, atrophied megaspores and two nucleated aposporic embryo sac were located side by side into the same ovule. At post-anthesis stage, pollination still had not begun and ovule contained only eight nucleated aposporic embryo sac. Mature aposporic embryo sac was composed of two synergid cells and one egg cell on the micropylar side, three antipodal cells on the chalazal side and a central cell with two polar nuclei in the middle of the sac. The absence of filiform apparatus in the synergid cells was quite remarkable. No callose accumulation around the aposporic initial cell was observed in any development stage. Pollination started shortly after the proembryo formation. Embryo and endosperm developed without fertilization due to the problems encountered in reaching pollen tubes to the ovary.
Salicylic acid pre-treatment induced physiological and biochemical changes in Solanum lycopersicum L under salinity stress (2021-06-11)
Agricultural crop production around the world is adversely affected by excess salt accumulation in the soil. Plants initiate broad range of signal transduction pathways to respond any stress. Salicylic acid (SA) is an endogenous plant growth regulator that acts as a signal molecule to modulate plant response by reducing the effects of abiotic stress on plants. The main objective of this study is to examine whether exogenous salicylic acid pre-treatment may reduce the adverse effects of salt stress and enhance salt tolerance in Solanum lycopersicum. For this experiment, two weeks old seedlings were subjected to salt stress by adding salt water (100 mM NaCl) for three days with or without salicylic acid pre-treatment. After salt stress exposure plant leaves were harvested and the various measures were recorded. Results of this study exhibited that salicylic acid pre-treatment mitigates various advers effects of salt stress on plant growth by stimulating plant biomass, water relations, protein content, chlorophyll pigment, and inorganic osmolytes accumulation. Simultaneously, an increase in activity of antioxidant enzymes of SOD, CAT and POX were also triggered. This current study suggested that pre-treating of Solanum lycopersicum with salicylic acid attenuates the depressive effect of salinity by accelerating the osmolyte accumulation and triggering activity of free radical scavenging enzymes.
Impact of water erosion on the properties of forest soils (2021-05-05)
The research work was conducted on eroded soil in the Keroua forest of Saida, Algeria, whose objective is to know the changes in the physicochemical and biological properties of forest soils subjected to the effect of water erosion. The samples were taken to a depth between 0-10 cm in each zone (eroded zone and control zone). Our results show that the biological properties are the most affected by water erosion where there was a significant decrease in basal respiration and microbial biomass, which had a negative influence on the metabolic quotient (higher values in the eroded area). For chemical properties, there was an increase in organic matter and total limestone, while the pHWater decreased in the eroded zone. For the physical properties. We raised a slight difference between the two areas, but which was not statistically significant.
Acute and sub-acute toxicity profile of methanol extract of Hura crepitans leaf on Wistar rats (2021-05-14)
This study investigated the toxicity profile of methanol extract of Hura crepitans leaf on albino rats. The up-and-down method at a dose limit of 2000 mg/kg was used in the oral acute toxicity test. Twenty-four (24) albino Wistar rats were randomly assigned to 4 groups (A –D, n = 6). Group A (control) received distilled water, while groups B-D received 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg of the extract, respectively. The rats were dosed once daily for 21 consecutive days and weighed weekly. Twenty-four hours after the last treatment on day 21, the rats were fasted overnight and blood was collected into EDTA and plain bottles for hematological evaluation and serum preparation respectively. A manual method was used to determine the full blood cell count, while Randox kit was used to estimate the serum markers of liver and kidney functions. The extract was tolerated by the rat; the LD50 was greater than 2000 mg/kg. At 21 days of treatment, the extract (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) treated groups had 27.53, 25.98 and 25.33% weight gain respectively, while the distilled water treated group had 8.38% weight gain. The extract (200 and 400 mg/kg) reduced (p < 0.05) the packed cell volume, hemoglobin concentration and red cell count, serum aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase activities, but increased the total white blood cell in the treated groups when compared with the control group. This study suggests that methanol extract of Hura crepitans has hepatoprotective activity, promotes weight gain and could precipitate anemia when taken for a long period.
The effects of methanol and amino acid glycine betaine on qualitative characteristics and yield of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) cultivars (2021-05-25)
In order to investigate the effects of methanol and glycine betaine application on quality traits and yield of different fodder beet cultivars, the experiment was performed as a combined split-factorial design based on randomized complete block design with 3 replications in two years in Isfahan, Iran. The concentrations of methanol in 3 levels (control, 15 and 30% v/v methanol) were considered as the first treatment, the concentrations of glycine betaine in 2 levels (control and 4 g per liter) as the second treatment and different cultivars (‘Sentinel’, ‘Drafter’, ‘Rivolta’, ‘Elanta’, ‘Rasta’, and ‘Qualita’) were considered as the factorial. Foliar spraying was performed at three intervals every two weeks. The results showed that the methanol spraying affected on root yield, sugar, potassium and sodium content, catalase enzyme activity, superoxide dismutase, rubisco, and malondialdehyde significantly. Glycine betaine foliar application showed significant differences in root yield, sugar, potassium and sodium content, enzyme catalase activity, superoxide dismutase, rubisco, and malondialdehyde. Based on the results, the utilization of methanol and glycine betaine caused quality improvement of the sugar beet under similar conditions of the present experiment.
Ethnopharmacological survey of medicinal plants used to treat cutaneous leishmaniasis in Ain Sekhouna, Saida, Algeria (2021-06-07)
Cutaneous leishmaniasis is a common anthropozoonosis and a major public health problem in Algeria. Therefore, we conducted an ethnopharmacological survey in the locality of Ain Sekhouna (located in the highlands of western Algeria), one of the foci of cutaneous leishmaniasis. We aimed to identify the medicinal plants and natural remedies used by the local population to treatment cutaneous leishmaniasis. We identified three plant species, belonging to three distinct families, used as natural remedies against the disease, namely, Haloxylon scoparium Pomel (Chenopodiaceae, 73%), Artemisia herba-alba Asso. (Asteraceae, 18%), and Camellia sinensis L. (Theaceae, 9%). Additionally, 35% of the plant-based medicines mostly comprised the powdered form of the aerial parts of the plant. According to the respondents, the powder is combined with butter, cade oil, or honey and is applied exogenously on the skin. Overall, these medicinal plants can be used as a source of natural medicines, in combination with commonly used dermatological excipients, to treat cutaneous leishmaniasis.
Avifaunal diversity and ecotourism opportunities: A case study from Barachaka tribal village of Bankura, West Bengal, India (2021-06-07)
Ethnic people throughout the globe are engaged in the conservation of biodiversity. The objective of this study was to measure the avifaunal diversity in heterogeneous forest and paddy fields surrounding the Barachaka tribal village of West Bengal, India and the prospect of development of ecotourism spot in this area. The study was conducted during June and July of 2019 and 2020. A total of 47 bird species belonging to 27 families were identified and recorded during the span of study. Among these bird species, Asian open bill stork (Anastomus oscitans) is predominant in the heterogeneous forest of this village and they usually used this place as a breeding ground during the rainy season. The study reveals that the safety and food security provided by the villagers encourage these birds to prepare colonial nests in trees very near to the human habitation. Shannon-Wiener diversity index value was recorded 2.49 within village forest and 2.33 in the paddy field during June 2019 and July 2019 and 2.62 within village forest and 2.47 in the paddy field during June 2020 and July 2020. Results obtained from the questionnaire survey revealed that tribal people of this village are directly attached to bird conservation in their area and these tribal people protect the bird generation after generation through their traditional knowledge. The community-based bird monitoring programs may protect birds as well as wildlife and encourage researchers who may gather scientific knowledge from these ethnic people. The village under study has the prospective to develop into a good bird watching site, where bird lovers may watch the birds in nature and thereby helping the socio-economic development of the tribal people of this village.
In press - Forthcoming. Article has been peer-reviewed, accepted for publication and published online first. The article is searchable and citable through Digital Object Identifier (DOI) and article number (which replaced traditional pagination from Volume 13, Issue 1, 2021). DOI link will become active after the articles will be included in the complete next issue (Volume 13, Issue 2, 2021).