Effect of Methanolic Fruit Extract of Piper guineense on Serum Biochemical Parameters and Histomorphology of the Liver and Kidney of Male Albino Rats (Rattus norvegicus)
Piper guineense fruit is known for its nutritive and medicinal values. This study evaluated the biochemical effect of the methanol fruit extract of P. guineense on male albino rats. A total of thirty-eight (38) adult male Sprague-Dawley albino rats were used for the study. Eighteen of the male rats were used for the acute toxicity study, while twenty (20) male rats were randomly assigned into four groups (A, B, C and D) of 5 rats each, for the sub-acute toxicity study. Groups B, C and D were the treatment groups, while group A was the control group and received only distilled water (10 mg/ml). Groups B, C and D received 10 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg body weight of the fruit extract respectively. Administration of the 100 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg of methanol fruit extract of P. guineense led to a significant (P < 0.05) increase in the serum ALT and AP on day 7 of the experiment. Throughout the experimental period, 200 mg/kg of the extract caused a significant (P < 0.05) increase in serum total proteins and globulin. Group D rats had significantly (P < 0.05) lower serum total cholesterol on day 28 of the experiment. The 100 mg/kg of the extract caused a significant increase in serum urea and creatinine on day 21 of the experiment. Oral administration of methanol fruit extract of P. guineense caused mild hepatocellular injury, hyperproteinemia, hyperglobulinemia, hypocholesterolemia, and mild renal toxicity.
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