Antimicrobial Properties and Melissopalynology, Proximate and Elemental Analyses of Honey Samples from Three Different Ecozones in Nigeria
Honey samples from three different ecozones - coastal freshwater (Ogba), lowland rainforest (Oka-Akoko) and montane Sudan savanna (Mambilla plateau) – were subjected to melissopalynological, proximate and elemental analyses, as well as antimicrobial studies. The aim of the research was to determine the contribution of pollen, if any, in the antimicrobial activities of the studied honey samples. Standard preparation methods were adopted for these studies. The Mambilla honey recorded the highest pollen diversity, while that of Oka-Akoko and Ogba regions had similar diversity, both having lower values. The Ogba honey however contained the highest abundance of pollen. Proximate analysis showed that the Mambilla honey also recorded the highest values of moisture, ash, protein, fats and oil, as well as potassium and reducing sugars. Antimicrobial investigation revealed the highest antimicrobial activities for the Mambilla honey, followed by Oka-Akoko and Ogba against Staphylococcus aureus (gram positive) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (gram negative). Moisture content, proteins and carbohydrates were significantly different, with positive and negative trends respectively, when related with the antimicrobial activities of the honey samples. The pollen contents were also qualitatively different. This is the first time the antimicrobial activity of honey is ever traced to pollen contents. More conclusions can be accurately made only after further research upon pollen grains directly.
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