Effect of Soaking, Cooking, Germination and Fermentation Processing on Physical Properties and Sensory Evaluation of Sorghum Biscuits
Keywords:orghum; grain characteristics; functional properties; biscuit; sensory and physical characteristics
Three white sorghum varieties (named ‘Dorado’,‘Shandaweel-6’ and ‘Giza-15’) were investigated for grain characteristics and processed whole meal flour (via soaking, cooked, germinated and fermented sorghum). ‘Giza-15’ variety was the highest one in 1,000 kernel weight and hectolitre, followed by ‘Dorado’ and ‘Shandaweel-6’ that were significant lower. Sorghum varieties were non-significant different in L scales. ‘Giza-15’ was the highest variety in a and b scales. Sorghum varieties were significant different in c scales and non-significant different in h scales. Shandaweel-6 recorded the highest value in water holding capacity (WHC).‘Giza-15’recorded the highest variety in oil holding capacity (OHC). The most significant increase in WHO was after fermentation treatment, followed by cooking treatment. Regarding OHC, the most significant increase was after germination treatment. Biscuits prepared from 50% whole meal flour of raw, soaked, cooked, germinated and fermented sorghum were evaluated for sensory and physical characteristics. The sensory results showed that 50% sorghum whole meal flour could be incorporated to prepare acceptable quality biscuits. The diameter of sorghum biscuits increased, while the diameter of wheat biscuits decreased. Hardness of sorghum biscuits was significant decreased in all treatments compared with wheat biscuits. Hardness of germinated sorghum biscuits was close to wheat biscuits values.
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