Gene Expression of Indoleamine 2,3 Dioxygenase 1, Insulin-Growth Factor 1 and Red/IK Cytokine in Alopecia areata
Alopecia areata (AA) is a chronic, T-cell mediated autoimmune disease directed against the hair follicle, which partially evolves due to a loss of the immune privilege of the anagen hair follicle. The immune privilege is maintained by several factors, including a downregulation of MHC class I and II, local immunosupressants and expression of Fas ligand. The purpose of the study was to evaluate several factors involved in the collapse and restoration of the immune privilege. We investigated IDO1, IGF1 and red/IK gene expression in lesional and perilesionalscalp biopsies from alopecia areata patients. Seven paired punch-biopsies were taken from the active edge of alopecic plaque and from the perilesional scalp. Expression of IDO1, IGF1 and red/IK genes was performed by qRT-PCR. In lesional tissue, IGF1, IDO1 and red/IK genes showed an increase in the mRNA levels as compared with the perilesional scalp. By comparing the pairs of data for the investigated genes, IDO1was statistically upregulated in the lesional area. No significant differences were observed between the gene expression in mild or severe AA, from the lesional or perilesional areas. IDO1 mRNA expression was higher in patients with a relapse duration of less than 6 months as compared to patients with a relapse duration of more than 6 months; levels of IGF1 and red/IK mRNA are increased in lesionals compared to perilesional scalp area.
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