Inter-Tracheid and Cross-Field Pitting in Compression Wood and Opposite Wood of Norway Spruce (Picea abies L.)
Inter-tracheid and cross-filed pit specifications in compression wood and opposite wood of Norway spruce (Picea abies) were determined. Fewer pits of a smaller size and a smaller aperture diameter were observed in compression wood. In contrast to the uniseriate arrangement of bordered pit pairs in compression wood, both uniseriate and biseriate pits were observed in opposite wood. In contrast to the circular view of the pit aperture in opposite wood, a slit-like pit aperture was often observed in compression wood. SEM images showed a number of helical fissures on the tracheid walls and bordered pits of compression wood along the microfibril angle in the S2 layer. The cross-field pits in compression wood were dominantly piceoid but sometimes cupressoid and occasionally taxodioid, whereas they were mostly piceoid and occasionally cupressoid in opposite wood. Overall, some significant differences in the inter-tracheid and cross-field pitting between the compression wood and opposite wood can give some explanations for their different air permeability and drying kinetics found in the previous studies.
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