Detection, prevalence, and risk factors associated with Cryptosporidium infection among cattle in Kwara State, Nigeria
Keywords:bovine, cryptosporidiosis, epidemiology, faecal samples, modified Ziehl-Neelsen stain
Cryptosporidium species cause high morbidity and sometimes high mortality rates among cattle, resulting in serious economic threats. This present study is aimed at investigating the presence, prevalence, distribution, and risk factors associated with Cryptosporidium species infection among cattle in Kwara State, Nigeria. To achieve this, 333 apparently healthy cattle were sampled from abattoirs and different cattle herds over a one-year period. Faecal samples were collected and subjected to the formalin-ethyl acetate (formol-ether) sedimentation technique. Sediments from the formol-ether sedimentation method were used for the modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining technique. The Microsoft Excel (2016) spreadsheet and the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS, Chicago, Illinois, USA) for Windows version 22.0 were used for the data analysis. Of the cattle sampled, 99 were positive for the enteric protozoan (29.73%; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 25.07–34.85). There was no distinct pattern in the monthly prevalence of Cryptosporidium infection in cattle. Breeds of cattle, physiological status, and seasons were statistically associated with the prevalence of Cryptosporidium species in cattle. There is a need to educate pastoralists on the control and preventive measures of this enteric protozoan to improve the economy of the cattle industry and prevent possible transmission to humans in Kwara State and Nigeria in general.
Abdullah DA, Ola-Fadunsin SD, Ruviniyia K, Gimba FI, Chandrawathani P, Lim YAL, Jesse FFA, Sharma RSK (2019). Molecular detection and epidemiological risk factors associated with Cryptosporidium infection among cattle in Peninsular Malaysia. Food and Waterborne Parasitology 12:e00035. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fawpar.2019.e00035
Adamu SG, Adamu NB, Aliyu AU, Atsanda NN, Mustapha FB, Muhammad YA, Umaru GA (2015). Prevalence of Cryptosporidium infection in cattle in Maiduguri, North Eastern Nigeria. Bangladesh Journal of Veterinary Medicine 13(1):25-28.
Adeiza MA, Nafarnda DW (2020). The prevalence of Cryptosporidium species in cattle in Lokoja, Kogi State, North Central Nigeria. International Journal of Recent Innovations in Academic Research 4(1):49-58.
Akinkuotu OA, Fagbemi BO, Otesile EB, Dipeolu MA, Ayinmode AB (2014). Cryptosporidium infection in cattle in Ogun state, Nigeria. Sokoto Journal of Veterinary Sciences 12(2):52-56. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/sokjvs.v12i2.9
Akinkuotu OA, Oluwasile BB, Jacobs EB, Adeyanju J, Okwelum N (2015). Occurrence of Cryptosporidium coproantigens in diarrhoeic ruminants and pigs in Ogun State, Southwest Nigeria. Journal of Veterinary Advances 5(10):1127-1132. https://doi.org/10.5455/jva.20151019011632
Almeida AJ, Oliveira FCR, Flores VMQ, Lopes CWG (2010). Risk factors associated with the occurrence of Cryptosporidium parvum infection in calves. Arquivo Brasileiro de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia 62(6):1325-1330.
Amer S, Zidan S, Adamu H, Ye J, Roellig D, Xiao L, Feng Y (2013). Prevalence and characterization of Cryptosporidium spp. in dairy cattle in Nile River delta provinces, Egypt. Experimental Parasitology 135(3):518-523. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.exppara.2013.09.002
Ayele A, Seyoum Z, Leta S (2018). Cryptosporidium infection in bovine calves: prevalence and potential risk factors in northwest Ethiopia. BMC Research Notes 11:105-110. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13104-018-3219-7
Ayinmode AB, Fagbemi BO (2010). Prevalence of Cryptosporidium infection in cattle from South Western Nigeria. Veterinarski Arhiv 80:723-731.
Bern C, Hernandez B, Lopez MB, Arrowood MJ, De Merida AM, Klein RE (2000). The contrasting epidemiology of Cyclospora and Cryptosporidium among outpatients in Guatemala. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 63(5-6):231-235.
Birhanu F, Lemma D, Eticha E, Abera B, Adem A (2017). Prevalence and risk factors of Cryptosporidiosis in dairy calves in Asella town, South Eastern, Ethiopia. Acta Parasitologica Globalis 8(1):50-57. https://doi.org/10.5829/idosi.apg.2017.50.57
Bjorkman C, Svensson C, Christensson B, De Verdier K (2003). Cryptosporidium parvum and Giardia intestinalis in calf diarrhoea in Sweden. Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica 44:145-152. https://doi.org/10.1186/1751-0147-44-145
Cheesbrough M (2009). District laboratory practice in tropical countries (Part 1). Cambridge University Press (2nd ed). United Kingdom.
Chukwu EV, Olayemi OD, Mohammed BR, Opara NM, Agbede RIS (2019). Research trends and prevalence of Cryptosporidium infections in animals in Nigeria: A review. Nigerian Journal of Parasitology 40(1):103-109. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/njpar.v40i1.17
Dankwa K, Feglo PK, Nuvor SV, Aggrey-Korsah M, Mutocheluh M (2021). Cryptosporidium infection and associated risk factors among cattle in the Central Region of Ghana. Journal of Parasitology Research Article ID 6625117: 1-8. https://doi.org/10.1155/2021/6625117
Danladi YK, Ugbomoiko US (2015). Epidemiology of cryptosporodiosis in ruminant species in Kebbi State, Nigeria. IOSR Journal of Agriculture and Veterinary Science 8(12):39-44. https://doi.org/10.9790/2380-081213944
Díaz-Lee A, Mercado R, Onuoha EO, Ozaki LS, Muñoz P, Muñoz V, Martínez FJ, Fredes F (2011). Cryptosporidium parvum in diarrheic calves detected by microscopy and identified by immunochromatographic and molecular methods. Veterinary Parasitology 176(2):139-144. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vetpar.2010.11.001
Faleke OO, Yabo YA, Olaleye, AO, Dabai YU, Ibitoye EB (2014). Point prevalence of Cryptosporidium oocyst in calves grazing along river Rima bank in Sokoto, Nigeria. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences 17(3):443-446. https://doi.org/10.3923/pjbs.2014.443.44
Fayer R, Santin M, Trout JM (2007). Prevalence of Cryptosporidium species and genotypes in mature dairy cattle on farms in eastern United States compared with younger cattle from the same locations. Veterinary Parasitology 145:260-266. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vetpar.2006.12.009
Ghoneim NH, Hassanain MA, Hamza DA, Shaapan RM, Draz SH (2017). Prevalence and molecular epidemiology of Cryptosporidium infection in calves and hospitalized children in Egypt. Research Journal of Parasitology 12(1):19-26. https://doi.org/10.3923/jp.2017.19.26
Gong C, Cao X-F, Deng L, Li W, Huang X-M, Lan J-C, … Peng G-N (2017). Epidemiology of Cryptosporidium infection in cattle in China: a review. Parasite 24:1-8. https://doi.org/10.1051/parasite/2017001
Hisamuddin NH, Hashim N, Soffian SN, Amin MHM, Wahab RA, Mohammad M, Md Isa ML, Yusof AM (2016). Identification of Cryptosporidium from dairy cattle in Pahang, Malaysia. Korean Journal of Parasitology 54(2):197-200. http://dx.doi.org/10.3347/kjp.2016.54.2.197
Hocine A, Bouzid R, Aggad H, Khelef D, Talhi H (2018). Prevalence and associated risk factors of cryptosporidiosis among cattle in the region of eastern Algeria. Veterinaria 67(2):89-95.
Ikiroma IA, Pollock KG (2020). Influence of weather and climate on cryptosporidiosis—A Review. Zoonoses Public Health 00:1-14. https://doi.org/10.1111/zph.12785
Jacobson C, Al-Habsi K, Ryan U, Williams A, Anderson F, Yang R, Abraham S, Miller D (2018). Cryptosporidium infection is associated with reduced growth and diarrhoea in goats beyond weaning. Veterinary Parasitology 260:30-37. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vetpar.2018.07.005
Khan A, Shams S, Khan S, Khan MI, Khan S, Ali A (2019). Evaluation of prevalence and risk factors associated with Cryptosporidium infection in rural population of district Buner, Pakistan. PLoS ONE 14(1):e0209188. https://doi.org/10.1371/ journal.pone.0209188
Lasisi OT, Ojo NA, Otesile EB (2002). Estimation of age of cattle in Nigeria using rostral dentition: Short communication. Tropical Veterinarian 20(4):204-208. https://doi.org/10.4314/tv.v20i4.4485
Maikai BV, Umoh JU, Kwaga JKP, Maikai VA, Camae V, Xiao L (2011). Molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium sp. in native breeds cattle in Kaduna State, Nigeria. Veterinary Parasitology 178(3-4):241-245. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vetpar.2010.12.048
Manyazewal A, Francesca S, Pal M, Gezahegn M, Tesfaye M, Lucy M, Teklu W, Getachew T (2018). Prevalence, risk factors and molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium infection in cattle in Addis Ababa and its environs, Ethiopia. Veterinary Parasitology: Regional Studies and Reports 13:79-84. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vprsr.2018.03.005
National Bureau of Statistics (NBS) (2016). Annual abstract of statistics. Federal Republic of Nigeria, FCT, Abuja, Nigeria.
Naumova EN, Christodouleas J, Hunter PR, Syed Q (2005). Effect of precipitation on seasonal variability in cryptosporidiosis recorded by the North West England surveillance system in 1990–1999. Journal of Water and Health 3(2):185-196. https://doi.org/10.2166/wh.2005.0017
Okojokwu OJ, Inabo HI, Yakubu SE, Okubanjo OO, Akpakpan EE, Kolawole T, Ndubuisi JC, Anejo-Okopi AJ (2016). Molecular characterisation of Cryptosporidium species from extensively managed cattle slaughtered in abattoirs in Kaduna State, Nigeria. Advances in Applied Science Research 7(1):17-22.
Ola-Fadunsin SD, Uwabujo PI, Sanda MI, Ganiyu IA, Hussain K, Rabiu M, Elelu N, Alayande MO (2019). Gastrointestinal helminths of intensively managed poultry in Kwara Central, Kwara State, Nigeria: its diversity, prevalence, intensity and risk factors. Veterinary World 12(3):389-396. https://doi.org/10.14202/vetworld.2019.389-396
Pam VA, Dakul DA, Karshima NS, Bata SI, Ogbu KI, Daniel LN, Udokaninyene, AD, Kemza SY, Igeh CP, Hassan AA (2013). Survey of Cryptosporidium species among ruminants in Jos, Plateau State, North-Central Nigeria. Journal of Veterinary Advances 3(2):49-54. https://doi.org/10.5455/jva.20130227112004
Panciera RJ, Thomassen RW, Garner FM (1971). Cryptosporidial infection in a calf. Veterinary Pathology 8:479-484.
Ranjbar R, Fattahi R (2017. Prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. in calves under one year old in Ilam County (Iran), from March 2014 to February 2015. Electron Physician 9(6):4631-4635.
Shallangwa JM, Maikai BV, Okubanjo OO, Tizhe EV, Francis MI (2022). Prevalence of Cryptosporidium infection in cattle from selected commercial farms and nomadic settlements in Yola, Adamawa State. Sokoto Journal of Veterinary Sciences 20(2):125-133. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/sokjvs.v20i2.7
Shittu A, Zaharadeen MM, Fasina FO, Umaru MA, Abdullahi A (2014). Classification of slaughtered ani¬mals and estimation of body condition scores during rainy season in Sokoto abattoir. Sokoto Journal of Veterinary Sciences 12(2):31-40. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/sokjvs.v12i2.6
Swai ES, Schoonman L (2010). Investigation into the prevalence of Cryptosporidium infection in calves among small-holder dairy and traditional herds in Tanzania. Veterinary Medicine International Article ID 676451:1-5. https://doi.org/10.4061/2010/676451
Taylor MA, Coop RL, Wall RL (2016). Veterinary Parasitology. Wiley Blackwell (4th ed), Oxford.
Thomson S, Hamilton CA, Hope JC, Katzer F, Mabbott NA, Morrison LJ, Innes ES (2017). Bovine cryptosporidiosis: impact, host‑parasite interaction and control strategies. Veterinary Research 48:42-57. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13567-017-0447-0
How to Cite
Papers published in Notulae Scientia Biologicae are Open-Access, distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution License.
© Articles by the authors; licensee SMTCT, Cluj-Napoca, Romania. The journal allows the author(s) to hold the copyright/to retain publishing rights without restriction.
Open Access Journal - the journal offers free, immediate, and unrestricted access to peer-reviewed research and scholarly work, due SMTCT supports to increase the visibility, accessibility and reputation of the researchers, regardless of geography and their budgets. Users are allowed to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of the articles, or use them for any other lawful purpose, without asking prior permission from the publisher or the author.