Growth rate, haematology and serum biochemistry of broilers fed diets supplemented with choline chloride
Keywords:broilers, cholinechloride, growth, haematology, serum biochemistry
The study evaluated the effect of choline chloride (CC) supplementation on growth rate, haematology and serum biochemistry of broilers. 120-day-old broiler chicks were randomly divided into four groups of 30 birds each and these were further sub-divided into 3 replicates of 10 birds each. Group A served as the control while the diets of groups B, C and D were supplemented with 0.5 g/kg, 0.75 g/kg and 1 g/kg of CC respectively. 6weeks post-supplementation, haematology, serum biochemistry, total weight gain, feed efficiency and carcass characteristics were determined. Group C (0.75 g/kg choline) had a significantly (p<0.05) higher feed efficiency (49.18%) than other choline-supplemented groups and control. There was no significant difference (p>0.05) in the mean values of AST, ALT, total protein and creatinine across all groups. However, the ALP and cholesterol values of group D (4.42 U/L and 1.68 mg/dl respectively) were significantly (p<0.05) higher than other groups. Lymphocyte counts of Group D was significantly (p<0.05) lower than all other groups. The spleen weight (0.27 g) of group D was significantly (p<0.05) higher than all other groups, but there was no significant difference (p>0.05) in the relative weights of other organs of all four groups. The values of the breast weight/width, drumstick length/width, wing length and carcass length did not vary significantly across the supplemented-groups, but the breast-length, thigh weight/length/width, drumstick-weight, wing weight/width and carcass-weight of the control group were significantly higher than the supplemented-groups. Choline chloride supplementation at 0.75 g/kg may have contributed to improved feed efficiency but not with a corresponding excellent carcass yield.
Adebayo OO, Adeola RG (2005). Socio-economic factors affecting poultry farmers in Ejigbo local government area of Osun State. Journal of Human Ecology 18(1):39-41. https://doi.org/10.1080/09709274.2005.11905804
Afolayan M, Olatunde A, Afolayan M (2008). Nigeria oriented poultry feed formulation software requirements. Journal of Applied Sciences Research 4:1596-1602.
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) (2007). Toxicological Profile for Lead. US Department of Health and Human Services Public Health Service.
Aidara-Kane A (2012). Containment of antimicrobial resistance due to use of antimicrobial agents in animals intended for food: WHO perspective. Revue Scientifique Technique 31:277-287. https://doi.org/10.20506/rst.31.1.2115
Ajit S, Doley P, Neeraj, Prasad J (2014). Effect of dietary supplementation of tulsi (Ocimum sanctum) leaf powder on haematology and serum biochemistry of broiler chicks. International Journal of Biological and Pharmaceutical Research 5(1):89-92.
Ayanrinde OJ, Owosibo AO, Adeyemo AA (2014). Performance characteristics of broilers fed bread waste-based diets. International Journal of Modern Plant and Animal Science 2(1):1-11.
Bounous D, Stedman N (2000). Normal avian hematology: chicken and turkey. In: Feldman BF, Zinkl JG, Jain NC (Eds). Schalm's Veterinary Haematology. Wiley, New York, pp 1147-1154.
Bowen R (2020). Metabolic functions of the liver. Retrieved 2020 July 25th from: http://www.vivo.colostate.edu/hbooks/pathphys/digestion/liver/metabolic.html
Boyer JL (2013). Bile formation and secretion. Comprehensive Physiology 3(3):1035-1078. https://doi.org/10.1002/cphy.c120027
Chen K, Zheng X, Feng M, Li D, Zhang H (2017). Gut microbiota‐dependent metabolite trimethylamine N‐oxide contributes to cardiac dysfunction in Western diet‐induced obese mice. Frontiers in Physiology 8:139. https://doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2017.00139
Derilo YL, Balnave D (1980). The choline and sulphur amino acid requirements of broiler chickens fed on semi-purified diets. British Poultry Science 21:479. https://doi.org/10.1080/00071668008416700
Emmert JL, Baker DH (1997). A chick bioassay approach for determining the bioavailable choline concentration in normal and overheated soybean meal, canola meal and peanut meal. Journal of Nutrition 127:745-752. https://doi.org/10.1093/jn/127.5.745
EPC (2005). Ban on Antibiotics as Growth Promoters in Animal FeedEnters into Effect, European Commission – IP/05/1687. Available at: http://europa.eu/rapid/press-release_IP-05-1687_en.htm
Farina G, Kessler ADM, Ebling PD, Marx FR, César R, Ribeiro AML (2017). Performance of broilers fed different dietary choline sources and levels. Ciência Animal Brasileira 18. https://doi.org/10.1590/1089-6891v18e-37633
Gangane GR, Gaikwad NZ, Ravikanth K,Maini S (2010). The comparative effects of synthetic choline and herbal choline on hepatic lipid metabolism in broilers. Veterinary World 3(7):318-320.
Giannini EG (2005). Liver enzyme alteration: a guide for clinicians. Canadian Medical Association Journal 172(3):367-379. https://doi.org/10.1503/cmaj.1040752.
Hassan RA, Attia YA, EL-Ganzory EH (2005). Growth, carcass quality and serum constituents of slow growing chicks as affected by betaine addition to diets containing different levels of choline. International Journal of Poultry Science 4:840-850. https://doi.org/10.3923/ijps.2005.840.850
Hossain M, Das GB, Hassan M, Shaikat A (2014). The effect of choline chloride supplementation on performance parameters and carcass characteristics of broiler. Iranian Journal of Applied Animal Science 4(2):373- 378.
Igwe IR, Okonkwo CJ, Uzoukwu UG, Onyenegecha CO (2015). The effect of choline chloride on the performance of broiler chickens. Annual Research and Review in Biology 8(3):1-8. https://doi.org/10.9734/ARRB/2015/19372
Jadhav NV, Nagbhushana V, Shivi M, Kartikesh SM (2008). An evaluation of comparative effects of feeding synthetic and herbal choline on broiler performance, nutrient balance and serum activities. Veterinary World 1(10):306-309.
Kachmar JF (1970). Determination of blood haemoglobin by the cyanomethaemoglobin procedure. Fundamentals of clinical chemistry, WB Sanders company, Philadelphia, pp 268-269.
Kanduri AB, Saxena MJ, Ravikanth K, Maini S, Dandale M, Kokane SS (2013). Performance assessment of broiler poultry birds fed on herbal and synthetic amino acids. Advances in Bioresearch 4(3):1-8.
Khose KK, Manwar SJ, Sedmake ED, Ingole RS, Rathod PR (2018). Supplementation herbal choline in diets on haematological indices and development of vital organ in broilers. Journal of Entomology and Zoology Studies 6(6):1054-1058.
Kumar V (2004). Biocholine as a replacer of choline chloride in commercial broilers. MVSc. Thesis, University of Pandit Deen Dayal Upadhyay Pashu Chikitsa Vigyan Vishwavidyalaya Evam Go-Anusandhan Sansthan Mathura, Uttar Pradesh, India.
Kohn RS, Allen MS (1995). Enrichment of proteolytic activity relative to nitrogen in preparation from the rumen for in vitro studies. Animal Feed Science and Technology 52(1-2):1-14. https://doi.org/10.1016/0377-8401(94)00711-H
Leeson S, Summers JD (2001). Scott’s Nutrition of the Chicken, 4th Ed. University Books, Guelph.
Marshall BM, Levy SB (2011). Food animals and antimicrobials: impacts on human health. Clinical Microbiology Reviews 24:718-733. https://doi.org/10.1128/CMR.00002-11
McDowell LR (2000). Vitamins in Animal and Human Nutrition, 2nd Ed. Wiley-Blackwell: Hoboken, New Jersey, USA, pp 793.
Minafra CS, Marques SFF, Stringhini JH, Ulhoa CJ, Rezende CSM, Santos JS, Moraes GHKD (2010). Biochemical serum profile of broilers fed diets supplemented with alfa-amylase from Cryptococcus flavus and Aspergillus niger HM2003. Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia 39:2691-2696. https://doi.org/10.1590/S1516-35982010001200020
Moss DW (1997). Physiochemical and patho-physiological factors in the release of membrane-bound alkaline phosphatase from cells. Clinica Chimica Acta 257(1):133-40. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0009-8981(96)06438-8
NRC (1987). Vitamin Tolerance of Animals. National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council, Washington, D.C.
NRC (1994). Nutrient Requirements of Poultry, 9th Edit., Nutrient Requirements of Domestic Animals. National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council, Washington, D.C.
Odle J (1996) Ingredients for pig feed: betaine and carnitine. Feed Management 47(1):25-27.
Peters TT, Biamonte GT, Doumas BT (1982). Protein in serum, urine and cerebrospinal fluid and albumen serum. In: Tietz NW (Ed). Selected Methods of Clinical Chemistry. W.B. Saunders Company, Philadelphia, pp 884-887.
Rafeeq M, Pasha TN, Rashid N, Hilal B, Shahzad I (2011). Effect of supplementation of methionine, betaine and choline on the performance of broiler chicken in early life fed methionine deficient ration. Journal of Animal and Plant Science 21(4):778-780.
Rahman BMDA (2005). Effect of dietary choline and methionine on broiler chicks performance and some blood parameters. MSc. Thesis, University of Khartoum, Khartoum, Sudan.
Rajalekshmy P (2010). Effects of dietary choline, folic acid and vitamin B12 on laying hen performance, egg components and egg phospholipid composition. ETD collection for University of Nebraska - Lincoln. AAI3428429. https://digitalcommons.unl.edu/dissertations/AAI3428429
Rao SR, Sunder GS, Reddy MR, Praharaj NK, Raju MVLN, Panda AK (2001). Effect of supplementary choline on the performance of broiler breeders fed on different energy sources. British Poultry Science 42(3):362-367. https://doi.org/10.1080/00071660120055340
Richmond W (1973). Cholesterol enzymatic colorimetric test chop-PAP method of estimation of total cholesterol in serum. Clinical Chemistry 191:1350-1356.
Sakthi PM, Gopala K, Murthy TR, Vijayanand T (2017). Effect of blend herbal supplement on haematology and serum biochemistry in commercial layer chicken. Journal World’s Poultry Research 7(2):48-56.
Schalm OW, Jain NC, Carrol EG (1975). Veterinary haematology. Leo and Febiger, Philadelphia. pp 140-152.
Schlaeger R, Haux D, Kattermann R (1982). Studies on the mechanism of the in-crease in serum alkaline phosphatase activity in cholestasis: significance of the hepatic bile acid concentration for the leakage of alkaline phosphatase from rat liver. Enzyme 28(1):3-13. https://doi.org/10.1159/000459078
Schutte JB, de Jong J (1999). Ideal amino acid profile for poultry. Cahiers-Options-Mediterranees 37:259-263.
Steel RGD, Torrie JH (1960). Principles and Procedures of Statistics. McGraw-Hill, New York.
Sun G, Yin Z, Liu N, Bian X, Yu R, Su X, ... Wang Y (2017). Gut microbial metabolite TMAO contributes to renal dysfunction in a mouse model of diet-induced obesity. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 493(2):964-970. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2017.09.108
Swain BK, Johri TS (2000). Effect of supplemental methionine, choline and their combinations on the performance and immune response of broilers. British Poultry Science 41(1):83-88. https://doi.org/10.1080/00071660086457
Vivian UOO, Ndofor-Foleng HM, Olorunleke SO, Uguru JO (2015). Evaluation of growth performance, haematological and serum biochemical response of broiler chickens to aqueous extract of ginger and garlic. Journal of Agricultural Sciences 7(4):167-173. https://doi.org/10.5539/jas.v7n4p167
Wang Z, Klipfell E, Bennett BJ, Koeth R, Levison BS, DuGar B, ... Hazen SL (2011). Gut flora metabolism of phosphatidylcholine promotes cardiovascular disease. Nature 472(7341):57-63. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature09922
Whitney SM (2012). Triglycerides. In: Wilson DA (Ed). Clinical Veterinary Advisor: The Horse. W. B. Saunders Company, Philadelphia.
Zhang JJ, Wang LX, Ruan WK, An J (2013). Investigation into the prevalence of coccidiosis and maduramycin drug resistance in chickens in China. Veterinary Parasitology 191:29-34. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vetpar.2012.07.027
How to Cite
Papers published in Notulae Scientia Biologicae are Open-Access, distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution License.
© Articles by the authors; licensee SMTCT, Cluj-Napoca, Romania. The journal allows the author(s) to hold the copyright/to retain publishing rights without restriction.
Open Access Journal - the journal offers free, immediate, and unrestricted access to peer-reviewed research and scholarly work, due SMTCT supports to increase the visibility, accessibility and reputation of the researchers, regardless of geography and their budgets. Users are allowed to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of the articles, or use them for any other lawful purpose, without asking prior permission from the publisher or the author.