Diversity of butterflies in Victoria Park Reserve Forest, Bhavnagar, Gujarat, India
Keywords:abundance, butterflies, diversity, reserve forest, urbanization
Documentation of biodiversity is crucial for examining the health of ecosystems. Many species act as an ecological indicator due to their susceptibility to changes in a particular environment. Butterflies, providing vital ecosystem services, respond uniquely to urbanization and can be a good tool for the assessment of the well-being of the habitat. The present study, one of its first kind in the particular habitat, provides a comprehensive outlook on the species diversity and abundance of butterflies at Victoria Park Reserve Forest, an urban forest area in Bhavnagar, Gujarat, India. The survey was conducted from March 2018 to February 2019 across all seasons. A total of 69 species belonging to 45 genera and five different families were recorded. The most diverse family was Lycaenidae (33.33%), followed by Nymphalidae (31.88%), Pieridae (21.74%), Papilionidae (7.25%), and Hesperiidae (5.80%). Junonia , was the dominant genus with six species. Out of the total recorded species,12 species are listed under the Least Concern category of the IUCN red list and 57 species are Not Evaluated. Seasonal variation in the number of species was observed, which shows the highest number of species in September (n=63) and the lowest in May (n=22). The abundance of the butterfly community was found to be highest during August (26.37%) and the lowest during February (1.85%). This study provided an understanding of the butterfly community in the habitat and would encourage further research for habitat restoration in the reserve forest.
Anonymous (2006). The Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972. Natraj Publishers, Dehradun.
Bhalodia K, Bhuva VJ, Dave SM, Soni VC (2002a). Butterflies of Vansda national park, Gujarat. Zoos’ Print Journal 17(10):903-904.
Bhalodia K, Bhuva VJ, Dave SM, Soni VC (2002b). Butterflies of Ratanmahal Wildlife Sanctuary, Gujarat. Zoos’ Print 17(10):905-906.
Bhalodia K, Dave SM, Soni VC (2002c). Butterflies of Narayan Sarovar Wildlife Sanctuary, Gujarat. Zoos’ Print Journal 17(10):906-907.
Bingham CT (1905). Fauna of British India. Butterflies. Taylor and Francis, London, UK.
Bingham CT (1907). Fauna of British India. Butterflies. Taylor and Francis, London, UK.
Brown KS, Freitas AVL (2002). Butterfly communities of urban forest fragments in Campinas, Sao Paulo, Brazil: structure, instability, environmental correlates, and conservation. Journal of Insect Conservation 6(4):217-231. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1024462523826
Chowdhury S, Soren R (2011). Butterfly (Lepidoptera: Rhopalocera) fauna of East Calcutta Wetlands, West Bengal, India. Check List 7(6):700-703. https://doi.org/10.15560/10960
Corke D (1999). Are honeydew/sap-feeding butterflies (Lepidoptera: Rhopalocera) affected by particulate air pollution? Journal of Insect Conservation 3(1):5-14. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1009670404398
Evans WH (1932). The Identification of Indian butterflies. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society, Mumbai, India.
Fattorini S (2011b). Insect rarity, extinction and conservation in urban Rome (Italy): a 120-year-long study of tenebrionid beetles. Insect Conservation and Diversity 4(4):307-315. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1752-4598.2010.00129.x
Gandhi N, Patel C, Padate G (2018). Butterfly diversity around an irrigation reservoir in the semi-arid zone of central Gujarat, India: A consideration for conservation management. Journal of Entomology and Zoology Studies 6(2):2123-2128.
Garratt MP, Breeze TD, Jenner N, Polce C, Biesmeijer JC, Potts SG (2014). Avoiding a bad apple: insect pollination enhances fruit quality and economic value. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment 184:34-40. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agee.2013.10.032
Gay T, Kehimkar ID, Punetha JC (1992). Common butterflies of India. Oxford University Press, Bombay.
Hammer Ø, Harper DAT, Ryan PD (2001). PAST: Paleontological Statistics Software Package for Education and Data Analysis. Paleontologia Electronica 4(1):9.
IUCN (2022). The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2022-3. Retrieved 2022 April 25 from https://www.iucnredlist.org
Jaramillo EM, Ayala CC, Reyes UJS, Becerra FMS, Fernández BH (2019). Altitudinal and seasonal distribution of butterflies (Lepidoptera, Papilionoidea) in Cerro Bufa El Diente, Tamaulipas, Mexico. ZooKeys 900:31-68.
Kannan MV, Chandrasekaran S (2022). Studies on the Butterfly Diversity in the Sathyamangalam Tiger Reserve, Tamil Nadu, India. Acta Scientific Veterinary Sciences 4(1):92-101.
Kehimkar I (2016). Butterflies of India. (BNHS Field Guides). Bombay Natural History Society, Mumbai.
Kellert SR (1993). Values and perceptions of invertebrates. Conservation Biology 7(4):845-855.
Koh LP (2007). Impacts of land use change on South-east Asian Forest butterflies: a review. Journal of Applied Ecology 44(4):703-713. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2664.2007.01324.x
Kunte KJ (1997). Seasonal patterns in butterfly abundance and species diversity in four tropical habitats in northern Western ghats. Journal of Biosciences 22(5):593-603. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02703397
Kunte K (2000). India, - A Lifescape: Butterflies of Peninsular India. Indian Academy of Science, Bangalore.
Kunte K, Sondhi S, Sangma BM, Lovalekar R, Tokekar K, Agavekar G (2012). Butterflies of the Garo Hills of Meghalaya, northeastern India: their diversity and conservation. Journal of Threatened Taxa 4(10):2933-2992. https://doi.org/10.11609/JoTT.o2945.2933-92
Larsen TB (1987). The butterflies of the Niligiri mountains of the Southern India (Lepidoptera: Rhopalocera). Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 84:26-54.
Lewington R (1999). How to identify butterflies. Harper Collins, London.
Mosse AH (1929). A Note on the Butterflies and Hawk Moths of Kathiawar (with special reference to the Bhavnagar.) Journal of Bombay natural History Society 33(4):888-892.
Parasharya BM, Jani JJ (2007). Butterflies of Gujarat. Anand Agriculture University, Anand, India.
Patel BP (1982). Ecological Survey of The Reserved Forest (Victoria Park) Near Bhavnagar. PhD Thesis, M. K. Bhavnagar University, Bhavnagar, Gujarat, India. http://hdl.handle.net/10603/89058
Paul M and Sultana A (2020). Studies on butterfly (Insecta: Lepidoptera) diversity across different urban landscapes of Delhi, India. Current Science 118(5):819-827. https://doi.org/10.18520/cs/v118/i5/819-827
Pollard E (1977). A method for assessing changes in the abundance of butterflies. Biological Conservation 12(2):115-134. https://doi.org/10.1016/0006-3207(77)90065-9
Pollard E (1991). Monitoring butterfly numbers. In: Goldsmith FB (Ed) Monitoring for conservation and ecology. (Springer, Dordrecht) 87-111. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-011-3086-8_6
Posa RMC, Sodhi NS (2006). Effects of anthropogenic land use on forest birds and butterflies in Subic Bay, Philippines. Biological Conservation 129(2):256-270. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2005.10.041
Potter A, LeBuhn G (2015). Pollination service to urban agriculture in San Francisco, CA. Urban Ecosystems 18(3):885-893. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11252-015-0435-y
Qureshi AA, Bhagat R, Bhat DM (2014). Diversity of butterflies (Lepidoptera: Papilionoidea and Hesperoidea) of Dachigam National Park, Jammu and Kashmir, India. Journal of Threatened Taxa 6(1):5389-5392. https://doi.org/10.11609/JoTT.o2886.5389-92
Raut NB, Pendharkar A (2010). Butterfly (Rhopalocera) fauna of Maharashtra Nature Park, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India. Check List 6(1):022-025. https://doi.org/10.15560/6.1.022
Schlegel J, Breuer G, Rupf R (2015). Local insects as flagship species to promote nature conservation? A survey among primary school children on their attitudes toward invertebrates. Anthrozoös 28(2):29-45. https://doi.org/10.1080/08927936.2015.11435399
Shapiro AM, Shapiro AR (1973). The ecological associations of the butterflies of Staten Island. Journal of Research on the Lepidoptera 12(2):65-128.
Sharma A, Ahmed SI, Kumar S (2017). Conservation of Biodiversity with particular reference of Butterfly Fauna of Gir Protected Area, Gujarat. International Journal of Advance Research 5(2):233-237. http://dx.doi.org/10.21474/IJAR01/3137
Sharma M, Sharma N (2013). Nectar resource use by butterflies in Gir Wildlife Sanctuary, Sasan, Gujarat. Biological Forum Journal 5(2):56-63.
Sharma M and Sharma N (2017). Suitability of butterflies as indicators of ecosystem condition: a comparison of butterfly diversity across four habitats in Gir Wildlife Sanctuary. International Journal of Advance Research in Biological Sciences 4(3):43-53. http://dx.doi.org/10.22192/ijarbs.2017.04.03.005
Sharma N, Sharma S (2021). Assemblages and seasonal patterns in butterflies across different ecosystems in a sub-tropical zone of Jammu Shiwaliks, Jammu and Kashmir, India. Tropical Ecology 62(2):261-78. https://doi.org/10.1007/s42965-020-00139-w
Sharma RM (2009). Insecta: Lepidoptera: Rhopalocera and Grypocera. Fauna of Bhimashankar Wildlife Sanctuary. Zoological Survey of India, Conservation Area Series 42, pp 257-262.
Singh AP (2011). Butterflies of India. OM Books International, Noida, India.
Singh MI, Gupta A, Varatharajan R (2011). Butterfly fauna of the Keibul Lamjao National Park, Manipur, North East India. Current Science 101(6):719-721.
Soga M, Gaston KJ (2016). Extinction of experience: the loss of human-nature interactions. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 14(2):94-101. https://doi.org/10.1002/fee.1225
Soga M, Koike S (2012a). Patch isolation only matters for specialist butterflies but patch area affects both specialist and generalist species. Journal of Forest Research 18(3):270-278. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10310-012-0349-y
Soga M, Koike S (2012b). Relative importance of quantity, quality and isolation of patches for butterfly diversity in fragmented urban forests. Ecological Research 27(2):265-271. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11284-011-0896-2
Sreekumar PG, Balakrishna M (2001). Diversity and habitat preferences of butterflies in Neyyar Wildlife Sanctuary, South India. Entomon-Trivandrum 26(1):11-22.
Suthar AR, Sankhwal AO, Rathod JY, Gavali DJ (2019). Rapid Assessment of Butterfly Diversity and Host plants at Piplaidevi Forest Range, Dangs, Gujarat. Bio Bulletin 5(1):25-31.
Talbot G (1939). The fauna of British India including Ceylon and Burma. Butterflies. Taylor and Francis, London, UK.
Talbot G (1947). The fauna of British India including Ceylon and Burma. Butterflies. Taylor and Francis, London, UK.
Thomas JA (2005). Monitoring change in the abundance and distribution of insects using butterflies and other indicator groups. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 360(1454):339-357. https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2004.1585
Whittaker RH (1965). Dominance and diversity in land plant communities: numerical relations of species express the importance of competition in community function and evolution. Science 147(3655):250-260. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.147.3655.250
Wynter-Blyth MA (1947). The butterflies of the Nilgiris - a supplementary note. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 46:735-736.
Wynter-Blyth MA (1957). Butterflies of the Indian region. Bombay Natural History Society, Bombay, pp 523.
How to Cite
Papers published in Notulae Scientia Biologicae are Open-Access, distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution License.
© Articles by the authors; licensee SMTCT, Cluj-Napoca, Romania. The journal allows the author(s) to hold the copyright/to retain publishing rights without restriction.
Open Access Journal - the journal offers free, immediate, and unrestricted access to peer-reviewed research and scholarly work, due SMTCT supports to increase the visibility, accessibility and reputation of the researchers, regardless of geography and their budgets. Users are allowed to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of the articles, or use them for any other lawful purpose, without asking prior permission from the publisher or the author.