Comparative studies of antioxidants and amino-acids concentrations in the fruits of two cultivars of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus L.)
Importance of fruits and vegetables in diet and health cannot be overemphasized. Cultivation practices can however influence the nutritional compositions of fruits and vegetables. Hence, field and laboratory experiments were carried out to determine and compare the antioxidants and amino-acids concentrations of a hybrid and an indigenous cultivar of watermelon in Osun State University, Teaching and Research Farm, Nigeria. Influence of NPK 15:15:15 fertilizer at different rates (0, 100, 200 and 300 kg/ha) was evaluated on ‘Kaolack’ (hybrid) and ‘Rothmas’ (local) cultivars of watermelon. 200 kg/ha of the fertilizer was found to bring out the optimal yield of both cultivars. Hence, at 0 kg/ha and 200 kg/ha, mature fruits of the cultivars were analyzed for the antioxidants and amino-acids using standard analytical methods. Antioxidant properties of ‘Rothmas’ were found to be significantly (P≤0.05) higher than those of ‘Kaolack’ with the exception of the radical scavenging ability and lycopene content of ‘Kaolack’. Fruits that received no fertilizer across the cultivars exhibited more antioxidant potency compared to fruits under 200 kg. Results of amino acids concentration showed that, threonine, serine, glutamic-acid, alanine, valine, phenylalanine and arginine in ‘Rothmas’ were significantly higher compared to the contents in ‘Kaolack’. Except for tryptophan, alanine, lysine and phenylanine, fruits that received no fertilizer had higher contents of amino acids. Where fertilizer is needed to boost soil fertility, 100 kg/ha of NPK is recommended, this can be augmented with the organic nutrient or green manure if necessary, depending on the available nutrients in the soil before cultivation. This is very critical so as not to compromise the health-giving substances in the fruits. Local landraces of fruits and vegetables obviously have to be brought into limelight through research.
Ak T, Gulcin L (2008). Antioxidant and radical scavenging properties of curcumin. Chemico-Biological Interactions 174(1):27-37. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cbi.2008.05.003
Artés-Hernández F, Robles PA, Gómez PA, Tomás Callejas A, Artés F (2010). Low UV-C illumination for keeping overall quality of fresh-cut watermelon. Postharvest Biology and Technology 55(2):114-120. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.postharvbio.2009.09.002
van Waalwijk van Doorn-Khosrovani SB, Janssen J, Maas LM, Godschalk RW, Nijhuis JG, van Schooten FJ (2007). Dietary flavonoids induce MLL translocations in primary human CD34+ cells. Carcinogenesis 28(8):1703-1709. https://doi.org/10.1093/carcin/bgm102
Brand-Williams W, Cuvelier ME, Berset C (1995). Use of a free radical method to evaluate antioxidants activity. LMT Food Science and Technology 28:25-30. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0023-6438(95)80008-5
Chafik H, Imen T, Riadh I (2020). Watermelon. In: Jaiswal AK (Ed). Nutritional composition and antioxidant properties of fruits and vegetables. Academic Press, pp 515-531. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-812780-3.00032-5
Charoensiri R, Kongkachuichai R, Suknicom S, Sungpuag P (2009). Beta-carotene, lycopene, and alpha-tocopherol contents of selected Thai fruits. Food Chemistry 113(1):202-207. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2008.07.074
De Lannoy (2001). Crop Production in Tropical Africa. Romain HR (Ed). Published by Directorate General for International Cooperation (DGIC), Brussels, Belgium, pp 236-238.
Edwards AJ, Vinyard BT, Wiley ER, Brown ED, Collins JK, Perkins-Veazie P, ... Clevidence BA (2003). Consumption of watermelon juice increases plasma concentrations of lycopene and β-carotene in humans. The Journal of Nutrition 133(4):1043-1050. https://doi.org/10.1093/jn/133.4.1043
Grotewold E (2006). The genetics and biochemistry of floral pigments. Annual Review in Plant Biology 57:761-780. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.arplant.57.032905.105248
Fish WW, Davis AR (2003). The effects of frozen storage conditions on lycopene stability in watermelon tissue. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 51(12):3582-3585. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf030022f
Wu G, Bazer FW, Davis TA, Kim SW, Li P, Marc Rhoads J, ... Yin Y (2009). Arginine metabolism and nutrition in growth, health and disease. Amino Acids 37(1):153-168. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00726-008-0210-y
Floriano-Sánchez E, Floriano-Sánchez E, Villanueva C, Noel Medina-Campos O, ... Pedraza-Chaverrí J (2006). Nordihydroguaiaretic acid is a potent in vitro scavenger of peroxynitrite, singlet oxygen, hydroxyl radical, superoxide anion and hypochlorous acid and prevents in vivo ozone-induced tyrosine nitration in lungs. Free Radical Research 40(5):523-533. https://doi.org/10.1080/10715760500419365
Haces ML, Hernández-Fonseca K, Medina-Campos ON, Montiel T, Pedraza-Chaverri J, Massieu L (2008). Antioxidant capacity contributes to protection of ketone bodies against oxidative damage induced during hypoglycemic conditions. Experimental Neurology 211(1):85-96. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.expneurol.2007.12.029
Halliwell B, Gutteridge JM, Aruoma OI (1987). The deoxyribose method: a simple “test-tube” assay for determination of rate constants for reactions of hydroxyl radicals. Analytical Biochemistry 165(1):215-219. https://doi.org/10.1016/0003-2697(87)90222-3
Halter SA (1989). Vitamin A: its role in the chemoprevention and chemotherapy of cancer. Human Pathology 20(3):205-209. https://doi.org/10.1016/0046-8177(89)90124-X
Health Line (2021). Retrieved 2021 December 1st from: https://www.healthline.com/nutrition/essential-amino-acids#roles-in-your-body
Hossain MA, Asada K (1985). Monodehydroascorbate reductase from cucumber is a flavin adenine dinucleotide enzyme. Journal of Biological Chemistry 260(24):12920-12926. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9258(17)38813-0
Huh YC, Solmaz I, Sari N (2008). Morphological characterization of Korean and Turkish watermelon germplasm. In: Proceedings of the 9th EUCARPIA meeting on Genetics and Breeding of Cucurbitaceae. INRA, Avignon (France), pp 21.
IITA (2013). Growing watermelon commercially in Nigeria- an illustrated guide. International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), pp 1-16.
Ilic D, Misso M. (2012). Lycopene for the prevention and treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer: A systematic review. Maturitas 72:269-276. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.maturitas.2012.04.014
Kang HS, Kim KR, Jun EM, Park SH, Lee TS, Suh JW, Kim JP (2008). Cyathuscavins A, B, and C, new free radical scavengers with DNA protection activity from the Basidiomycete Cyathus stercoreus. Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters 18(14):4047-4050. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bmcl.2008.05.110
Liu RH (2004). Potential synergy of phytochemicals in cancer prevention: mechanism of action. The Journal of Nutrition 134(12):3479S-3485S. https://doi.org/10.1093/jn/134.12.3479S
Lü JM, Lin PH, Yao Q, Chen C (2010). Chemical and molecular mechanisms of antioxidants: experimental approaches and model systems. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine 14(4):840-860. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1582-4934.2009.00897.x
Muller FL, Lustgarten MS, Jang Y, Richardson A, Van Remmen H (2007). Trends in oxidative aging theories. Free Radical Biology and Medicine 43(4):477-503. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2007.03.034
Obadoni BO, Ochuko PO (2002). Phytochemical studies and comparative efficacy of the crude extracts of some haemostatic plants in Edo and Delta States of Nigeria. Global Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences 8(2):203-208. https://doi.org/10.4314/gjpas.v8i2.16033
Okwu DE, Okwu ME (2004). Chemical composition of Spondias mombin Linn plant parts. Journal of Sustainable Agriculture and Environment 6(2):140-147.
Oloyede FM, Adebooye OC (2005). Effect of season on growth, fruit yield and nutrient profile of two landraces of Trichosanthes cucumerina L. African Journal of Biotechnology 4(6):1040-1044..
Oloyede FM, Agbaje GO, Obuotor EM, Obisesan IO (2012). Nutritional and antioxidant profiles of pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo Linn.) immature and mature fruits as influenced by NPK fertilizer. Food Chemistry 135(2):460-463. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2012.04.124
Oloyede FM, Adebooye OC, Obuotor EM (2014). Planting date and fertilizer affect antioxidants in pumpkin fruit. Scientia Horticulturae 168:46-50. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scienta.2014.01.012
Oloyede FM, Adebooye OC, Agbaje GO (2015). Fertilizer, crop yield and bioactive compounds. In: Shishir S, Pant KK, Bajpai S (Eds). Fertilizer Technology. Vol. 1. Studium Press LLC, pp 42-58.
Rhodes B, Zhang X (1995). Gene list for watermelon. Cucurbit Genet Coop.
Thulaja NR (2005). Watermelon, National library board, Singapore North Carolina University. Watermelon, a paper presented at Charpel Hill.
USDA (2002). Food and Nutritonl information centre. National Agricultural library, United states Department of Agriculture. http://fnic.nal.usda.gov/6
Van den Berg H, Faulks R, Granado HF, Hirschberg J, Olmedilla B, Sandmann G, ... Stahl W (2000). The potential for the improvement of carotenoid levels in foods and the likely systemic effects. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 80(7):880-912. https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1097-0010(20000515)80:7<880::AID-JSFA646>3.0.CO;2-1
Zhou K, Raffoul JJ (2012). Potential anticancer properties of grape antioxidants. Journal of Oncology 803294. https://doi.org/10.1155/2012/803294
Papers published in Notulae Scientia Biologicae are Open-Access, distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution License.
© Articles by the authors; licensee SMTCT, Cluj-Napoca, Romania. The journal allows the author(s) to hold the copyright/to retain publishing rights without restriction.
Open Access Journal - the journal offers free, immediate, and unrestricted access to peer-reviewed research and scholarly work, due SMTCT supports to increase the visibility, accessibility and reputation of the researchers, regardless of geography and their budgets. Users are allowed to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of the articles, or use them for any other lawful purpose, without asking prior permission from the publisher or the author.