Rapid germination and development of Acacia sieberiana DC in vitro
Keywords:Acacia sieberiana, cytokinin, dormancy, MS strength, in vitro seed culture;, seedling, sucrose level
Acacia sieberiana is an ecological and economical important forest tree. The plant has poor germination due to dormancy; therefore, in vitro culture can provide a fast supply of plantlets and can be a basis for further biotechnology research. The effect of sodium hypochlorite, Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium, sucrose and cytokinin were investigated. The results indicated that all the treatments induced significant (P < 0.05) effects on germination and seedling development depending on their concentrations. Germinates free of contamination were established successfully with all the concentrations of sodium hypochlorite, however, the germination was reduced as the concentration increased. A higher germination rate of 98.3% was attained with full MS strength and 3% sucrose concentration. The highest germination percentage obtained was 100% with 2 mg/L thidiazuron. The maximum shoot length (13.5 cm) and seedling dry weight (0.49 g) were recorded on full MS medium while the maximum root length (13.4 cm) was obtained on ½ MS strength. However, when full MS medium augmented with 5% sucrose enhanced shoot length and dry weight to (14.2 cm) and (0.5 g), respectively. While the highest root length (10.2 cm) was obtained by 3% provided in full MS medium. Application of cytokinins improved the number of node and dry weight of seedlings to 6.9 nodes with 4 mg/L thidiazuron and 0.54 g by 2 mg/L benzyladenine. The present study describes the establishment of in vitro seed germination and seedling growth system for A. sieberiana for the first time.
Abdul-Baki AA (1974). Pitfalls in using sodium hypochlorite as a seed disinfectant in 14C incorporation studies. Plant Physiology 53:768-771. https://dx.doi.org/110.1104%2Fpp.53.5.768.
Altayeb CS (2004). Micropropagation of Acacia seyal var. seyal Del. using single nodule explants. MSc Thesis, University of Khartoum, Khartoum, Sudan.
Alves GM, Vesco LLD, Guerra MP (2006). Micropropagation of the Brazilian endemic bromeliad Vriesea reitzii through nodule clusters culture. Scientia Horticulturae 1(2):204-207. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scienta.2006.06.014
Attia AO, El Dessoky SD, Yassin MA (2017). Genetic diversity and in vitro propagation of some Acacia spp. trees grown in Taif governorate. Bioscience Research 14(4):924-933.
Aziz AAS, Omaki MA, Kafawin OM (2001). Germination and seedling growth of Acacia raddiana and Acacia nilotica at different levels of salinity and drought under in vitro conditions. Journal of Tropical Forest Science 13(1):192-201. https://www.jstor.org/stable/43582284
Bodede O, Shaik S, Moodley R (2018). Establishment of seed germination and micropropagation protocols for Senegalia nigrescens, a potential anti-virulent species. Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica, Section B — Soil and Plant Science. https://doi.org/10.1080/09064710.2018.1455892
Chidumayo EN (2008). Demographic implications of life-history stage characteristics in two African acacias at a Makeni savanna plot in Zambia. Journal of Plant Ecology 1(4):217-225. https://doi.org/10.1093/jpe/rtn022
Christiana JD, Ishaku LE, Nkechi VO, Jurbe GG, Olumola OO, Micah SM, Sunday M (2012). Antidiarrheal evaluation of aqueous and ethanolic leaf extracts of Acacia sieberiana DC. (Fabaceae) in albino rats. Asian Journal of Experimental Biological Sciences 3(4):799-803.
Chun S-C, Schneider RW, Cohn MA (1997). Sodium hypochlorite: Effect of solution pH on rice seed disinfestation and its direct effect on seedling growth. Plant Disease 81:821-824. https://doi.org/10.1094/PDIS.1918.104.22.1681
Daffalla HM, Elsheikh AM, Ali HA, Khalfala MM (2016). In vitro seed germination and node culture of the nutraceutical plant Grewia tenax. Environmental and Experimental Biology 14:75-81. http://dx.doi.org/10.22364/eeb.14.11
Dhabhai K, Batra A (2010). Hormonal regulation impact on regeneration of Acacia nilotica L. a nitrogen fixing tree. World Applied Sciences Journal 11(9):1148-1153.
El Amin HM (1990). Trees and shrubs of the Sudan. Ithaca press, Exeter, UK, pp 484.
Gantait S, Kundu S, Das PK (2016). Acacia: an exclusive survey on in vitro propagation. Journal of the Saudi Society of Agricultural Sciences 17(2):163-177. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jssas.2016.03.004
Hartmann HT, DE Kester, FT Davies Jr, Geneve RL (2002). Plant propagation: Principles and practices. Prentice Hall (7th ed), Upper Saddle River, NJ.
Kanz WA (2001). Seed and seedling dynamics of certain acacia species as affected by herbivory, grass competition, fire, and grazing system. MSc Thesis, Faculty of Science and Agriculture, University of Natal, Pietermaritzburg, South Africa. www.researchspace.Ukzn.Ac.Za
Kiani M, Younesikelaki FS, Ebrahimzadeh MH, Savitikadi P, Jogam, P, Sadanandam A (2017). Studies on the effect of various seed surface sterilization and growing media on the in-vitro germination of Lemon Balm (Melissa officinalis L.). Indian Journal of Science and Technology 10(3). http://dx.doi/10.17485/ijst/2017/v10i3/102666
Kordofani M, Ingrouille M (1991). Patterns of morphological variation in the Acacia species (Mimosaceae) of northern Sudan. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 105(3):239-256. http://dx.doi/10.1111/j.1095-8339.1991.tb00206.x
Luna T, Wilkinson KM, Dumroese RK (2014). Chapter 9: Seed germination and sowing options. In: Wilkinson KM, Landis TD, Haase DL, Daley BF, Dumroese RK (Eds). Tropical Nursery manual: A guide to starting and operating a nursery for native and traditional plants. Agriculture Handbook 730. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Washington DC, pp 163-183.
Matekaire T, Maroyi A (2009). Thermotolerance and osmotic potential studies in germinating seeds and growing seedlings of Acacia sieberiana and Acacia tortilis. Journal of Sustainable Development in Africa 10(4):95-105.
Miransari M, Smith DL (2014). Plant hormones and seed germination. Environmental and Experimental Botany 99(121). http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envexpbot.2013.11.005
Mishra JP, Bhadrawale D, Yadav U, Mohammad N, Shirin F (2018). Effect of various plant growth regulators on in vitro seed germination and shoot organogenesis in Tectona grandis L.f. Tropical Plant Research 5(2):152-159. https://doi.org/10.22271/tpr.2018.v5.i2.o20
Mishra Y, Rawat R, Nema B, Shirin F (2013). Effect of seed orientation and medium strength on in vitro germination of Pterocarpus marsupium Roxb. Notulae Scientia Biologicae 5(4):476-479. https://doi.org/10.15835/nsb549124
Mucunguzi P (1995a). Bruchids and survival of Acacia seeds. African Journal of Ecology 33(3):175-183. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365.2028.1995.tb00795.x
Mucunguzi P (1995b). Effects of bruchid beetles on germination and establishment of Acacia species. African Journal of Ecology 33(1):64-70. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365.2028.1995.tb00781.x
Mucunguzi P, Oryem-Origa H (1996). Effects of heat and fire on the germination of Acacia sieberiana DC. and Acacia gerrardii Benth. In Uganda. Journal of Tropical Ecology 12(1):1-10. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0266467400009275
Mugunga CP, Sahinkuye D. (2020). Assessment of seed germination and seedling growth of Vachellia sieberiana under different soil moisture regimes. Rwanda Journal of Agricultural Sciences 2(14):4-14. www.ajol.info/index.php/rjeas/article/view/200839
Murashige T, Skoog F (1962). A revised medium for rapid growth and bio-assays with tobacco tissue cultures. Physiologia Plantarum 15(3):473-497. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1399-3054.1962.tb08052.x
Murthy KSR, Reddy MC (2014). Micropropagation and conservation strategies of the potentially medicinal and economically-important tropical deciduous tree - Drypetes roxburghii (Wall.) Hurursawa. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research 8(20):870-880. https://doi.org/10.5897/JMPR2014.5304
Murugan K, Aswathy JM, Babu BKV (2016). In vitro seeds germination and seedling growth of Begonia malabarica Lam. (Begoniaceae) a source for antho¬cyanin. Advances in Biochemistry and Biotechnology 1(1):105.
NTSC (1998). Seeds guide number 6: Some seeds treatment techniques for enhancing germination with removing seed dormancy. Part I: outer dormancy. Prepared by Mahgroub, S. National Tree seed Center- Forest Research Centre, Sudan.
Pahla I, Muziri T, Chinyise T, Muzemu S, Chitamba J (2014). Effects of soil type and different pre-sowing treatments on seedling emergence and vigour of Acacia sieberiana. International Journal of Plant Research 4(2):51-55.
Perveen S, Anis M, Aref, IM (2013). In vitro plant regeneration of Albizia lebbeck (L.) Benth. from seed explants. Forest Systems 22(2):241-248. http://dx.doi.org/10.5424/fs/2013222-03261
Rambabu M, Upender M, Ujjwala D, Ugandhar T, Praveen M, Swamy NR (2006). In vitro zygotic embryo culture of an endangered forest tree Givotia rottleriformis and factors affecting its germination and seedling growth. In Vitro Cellular and Developmental Biology—Plant 42(5):418-421. https://doi.org/10.1079/IVP2006804
Roni MZK, Islam MS, Shimasaki K (2017). In vitro seed germination and tracking the seedling growth of eustoma. New Zealand Journal of Crop and Horticultural Science 46(3):224-242. https://doi.org/10.1080/01140671.2017.1391300
Sabiiti EN, Wein RW (1987). Fire and acacia seeds: A hypothesis of colonization success. Journal of Ecology 75(4):937-946. https://doi.org/10.2307/2260305
Salisu A, Godwin HO, Paul CO, Omotoye O, Rebecca WN, Olayanju S (2014). Evaluating the nutritional potential of Acacia sieberiana seeds (Dc) growing in North West of Nigeria. Journal of Biology and Life Science 5(2):25-36. http://dx.doi.org/10.5296/jbls.v5i2.4860
Shin KS, Park SY, Paek KY (2013). Sugar metabolism, photosynthesis, and growth of in vitro plantlets of Doritaenopsis under controlled microenvironmental conditions. In Vitro Cellular and Developmental Biology - Plant 49(4):445-454. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11627-013-9524-x
Sulieman HM, Buchroithner MF, Elhag MM (2012). Use of local knowledge for assessing vegetation changes in the Southern Gadarif Region, Sudan. African Journal of Ecology 50(2):233-242. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.136-2028.2011.01318.x
Tchatchedre M, Amoussa AM, Houinato M, Yedomonhan H, Lagnika L (2019). Ethnobotanical survey and phytogeographical study of plants species from genus Acacia in Bénin. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research 13(9):199-212. https://doi.org/10.5897/JMPR2019.6761
Tybirk K. (1991). Regeneration of woody legumes in Sahel. A.A.U. Report 27 Botanical Institute, Aarhus University. Danida Forest Seed Centre, Humlebaek, pp 82.
Warrag EI, Eltigani MA (2005). Breaking seed coat dormancy of Acacia nilotica seeds under simulated natural habitat conditions in Sudan. Tropical Ecology 46:127-132.
Yildirim H, Tilkat E, Onay A, Ozen HÇ (2007). In vitro embryo culture of apricot, Prunus armeniaca L. cv. Hacıhaliloglu. International Journal of Science and Technology 2(2):99-104.
Yildiz M, Er C (2002). The effect of sodium hypochlorite solutions on in vitro seedling growth and shoot regeneration of flax (Linum usitatissimum). Naturwissenschaften 89:259-261. https://doi.org/10.1007s00114-002-0310-6
How to Cite
Papers published in Notulae Scientia Biologicae are Open-Access, distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution License.
© Articles by the authors; licensee SMTCT, Cluj-Napoca, Romania. The journal allows the author(s) to hold the copyright/to retain publishing rights without restriction.
Open Access Journal - the journal offers free, immediate, and unrestricted access to peer-reviewed research and scholarly work, due SMTCT supports to increase the visibility, accessibility and reputation of the researchers, regardless of geography and their budgets. Users are allowed to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of the articles, or use them for any other lawful purpose, without asking prior permission from the publisher or the author.