Chemical composition and antibacterial activity of Moroccan Artemisia mesatlantica and A. absinthium essential oils against fire blight caused by Erwinia amylovora


  • Laaziza DOUKKALI Ecole Nationale d’Agriculture de Meknes, Department of the Plant Protection, Phytopathology Unit, BP S/40 Meknès; Moulay Ismail University, Faculty of Sciences, Laboratory of Bioactive Molecules and Environment, B.P 11201, Meknes; Ecole Nationale d’Agriculture de Meknes, Department of the Basic Sciences, Laboratory of Chemistry, BP S/40 Meknès (MA)
  • Abdessalem TAHIRI Ecole Nationale d’Agriculture de Meknes, Department of the Plant Protection, Phytopathology Unit, BP S/40 Meknès (MA)
  • Latifa ASKARNE Ibn Zohr University, Faculty of Sciences, Laboratory of Microbial Biotechnology and Plant Protection, Agadir (MA)
  • Bouchra TAZI Ecole Nationale d’Agriculture de Meknes, Department of the Basic Sciences, Laboratory of Chemistry, BP S/40 Meknès (MA)
  • Farhate GUENOUN Moulay Ismail University, Faculty of Sciences, Laboratory of Bioactive Molecules and Environment, B.P 11201, Meknes (MA)
  • Said EZRARI Ecole Nationale d’Agriculture de Meknes, Department of the Plant Protection, Phytopathology Unit, BP S/40 Meknès; Sidi Mohamed Ben Abdellah University, Department of Biology, Laboratory of Functional Ecology and Environmental Engineering, Route d’Imouzzer, PoBox 2202, Fez (MA)
  • Rachid LAHLALI Ecole Nationale d’Agriculture de Meknes, Department of the Plant Protection, Phytopathology Unit, BP S/40 Meknès (MA)



antibacterial activity, Artemisia absinthium, Artemisia mesatlantica, bioassay test, Erwinia amylovora, in vitro test


The aim of this study was to find an alternative to chemical products used in the control of fire blight disease of rosaceous plants. In this work, essential oils of two Moroccan Artemisia species: Artemisia mesatlantica and Artemisia absinthium were screened for their antibacterial activity against Erwinia amylovora the causal agent of this disease. The EOs extraction was carried out by water distillation method in Clevenger- type apparatus and analyzed by gas Chromatography-Flame Ionization Detector (GC/FID) and by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS). The antibacterial activity of extracted EOs was tested in vitro based on the agar diffusion method and broth microdilution method and in vivo on detached immature pear fruits. The results revealed that the yields of extracted EOs were 1.25 and 0.58% respectively for A. mesatlantica and A. absinthium. The chemical composition analysis showed that investigated EOs were characterized with a high amount of β-Thujone (40.42% for A. mesatlantica and 36.25% for A. absinthium). Both EOs have a similar MIC value (2.08%). A. absinthium EOs were found to be more effective than A. mesatlantica EOs since they show the lowest MBC. These results indicate that EOs of A. absinthium and A. mesatlantica contained compounds with antibacterial potential against Erwinia amylovora. In the bioassay test, the application of A. absinthium EOs on detached immature pear fruits infected by E. amylovora resulted in total suppression of disease severity. Such natural products may represent a sustainable alternative to the use of chemical pesticides.


Metrics Loading ...


Aberchane M, Fechtal M, Chaouch A, Bouayoune T (2001). Effect of time and distillation techniques on essential oils yield and quality of atlas cedar (Cedrus atlantica M.). In: Annales de la Recherche Forestiere au Maroc pp 110-118.

Ahameethunisa AR, Hopper W (2010). Antibacterial activity of Artemisia nilagirica leaf extracts against clinical and phytopathogenic bacteria. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 10:1-6.

Akhlaghi M, Tarighi S, Taheri P (2020). Effects of plant essential oils on growth and virulence factors of Erwinia amylovora. Journal of Plant Pathology 102:409-419.

Askarne L, Talibi I, Boubaker H, Boudyach EH, Msanda F, Saadi B, Ait Ben Aoumar A (2013). Use of Moroccan medicinal plant extracts as botanical fungicide against citrus blue mould. Letters in Applied Microbiology 56:37-43.

Badawy MEI, Abdelgaleil SAM (2014). Composition and antimicrobial activity of essential oils isolated from Egyptian plants against plant pathogenic bacteria and fungi. Industrial Crops and Products 52:776-782.

Barkley TM, Brouillet L, Strother JL (2006). Flora of North America–Asteraceae. Vols 19:20-21.

Benada M, Boumaaza B, Boudalia S, Khaladi O (2021). Isolation and efficacy of two bacterial strains antagonists of Erwinia amylovora and Pectobacterium carotovorum. E Egyptian Journal of Biological Pest Control 31(1):1-11.

Bencheqroun HK, Ghanmi M, Satrani B, Aafi A, Chaouch A (2012). Activité antimicrobienne des huiles essentielles d’Artemisia mesatlantica, plante endémique du Maroc Antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of an endemic plant in Morocco Artemisia mesatlantica. Bulletin de la Société Royal des Sciences de Liège

Boumhara K, Bentiss F, Tabyaoui M, Costa J, Desjobert JM, Bellaouchou A, … Al Deyab SS (2014). Use of Artemisia mesatlantica essential oil as green corrosion inhibitor for mild steel in 1 M hydrochloric acid solution. International Journal of Electrochemical Science 9:1187-1206.

Bourkhiss M, Hnach M, Bourkhiss B, Ouhssine M, Chaouch A, Satrani B (2009). Effet de séchage sur la teneur et la composition chimique des huiles essentielles de Tetraclinis articulata (Vahl) Masters. Agrosolutions 20:44-48.

Cakir A, Kordali S, Zengin H, Izumi S, Hirata T (2004). Composition and antifungal activity of essential oils isolated from Hypericum hyssopifolium and Hypericum heterophyllum. Flavour and Fragrance Journal 19:62-68.

Chekem MSG, Lunga PK, Tamokou JDD, Kuiate JR, Tane P, Vilarem G, Cerny M (2010). Antifungal properties of Chenopodium ambrosioides essential oil against Candida species. Pharmaceuticals 3:2900-2909.

Cruz GVB, Pereira PVS, Patrício FJ, Costa, GC, Sousa SM, Frazao JB, Nascimento FR (2007). Increase of cellular recruitment, phagocytosis ability and nitric oxide production induced by hydroalcoholic extract from Chenopodium ambrosioides leaves. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 111:148-154.

Derwich E, Benziane Z, Boukir A (2009). Chemical compositions and insectisidal activity of essential oils of three plants Artemisia sp: Artemisia herba-alba, Artemisia absinthium and Artemisia pontica (Morocco). Electronic Journal of Environmental, Agricultural & Food Chemistry 8:1202-1211

Dhifi W, Bellili S, Jazi S, Bahloul N, Mnif W (2016). Essential oils’ chemical characterization and investigation of some biological activities: A critical review. Medicines 3:25.

Dorman H, Deans SG (2000) Antimicrobial agents from plants: antibacterial activity of plant volatile oils. Journal of Applied Microbiology 88:308-316.

Doukkali, L., Tahiri, A., Tazi, B., & Guenoun, F. (2018). Chemical composition and antibacterial activity of two essential oils of rosemary against Erwinia amylovora, the causal agent fire blight. Journal of Materials and Environmental Science 9:2913-2918.

Droby S, Chalutz E, Wilson CL, Wisniewski M (1989). Characterization of the biocontrol activity of Debaryomyces hansenii in the control of Penicillium digitatum on grapefruit. Canadian Journal of Microbiology 35:794-800.

Dung NT, Kim JM, Kang SC (2008). Chemical composition, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of the essential oil and the ethanol extract of Cleistocalyx operculatus (Roxb.) Merr and Perry buds. Food and Chemical Toxicology 46:3632-3639.

El Hamdaoui A, Msanda F, Boubaker H, Leach D, Bombarda I, Vanloot P, ... El Mousadik A (2018). Essential oil composition, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of wild and cultivated Lavandula mairei Humbert. Biochemical Systematics and Ecology 76:1-7.

El Khetabi A, Lahlali R, Askarne L, Ezrari S, El Ghadaroui L, Tahiri A, ... Amiri S (2020). Efficacy assessment of pomegranate peel aqueous extract for brown rot (Monilinia spp.) disease control. Physiological and Molecular Plant Pathology 110:101482.

Elazzouzi H, Khabbal Y, Bouachrine M, Zair T, Alaoui El Belghiti M (2018). Chemical composition and in vitro antibacterial activity of Artemisia ifranensis J. Didier essential oil growing wild in middle Moroccan Atlas. Journal of Essential oil Research 30:142-151.

Erel ŞB, Reznicek G, Şenol SG, Yavaşoğlu NÜK, Konyalioğlu S, Zeybek AU (2012). Antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of Artemisia L. species from western Anatolia. Turkish Journal Biology 36:75-84.

Fawcett CH, Spencer DM (1970). Plant chemotherapy with natural products. Annual Review in Phytopathology 8:403-418.

Ferreira JFS, Peaden P, Keiser J (2011). In vitro trematocidal effects of crude alcoholic extracts of Artemisia annua, A. absinthium, Asimina triloba, and Fumaria officinalis. Parasitology Research 109:1585-1592.

Filipowicz N, Kamiński M, Kurlenda J, Asztemborska M, Ochocka JR (2003). Antibacterial and antifungal activity of juniper berry oil and its selected components. Phytotherapy Research 17:227-231.

Fouad R, Bousta D, Lalami AEO, Chahdi FO, Amri I, Jamoussi B, Greche H (2015). Chemical composition and herbicidal effects of essential oils of Cymbopogon citratus (DC) Stapf, Eucalyptus cladocalyx, Origanum vulgare L and Artemisia absinthium L. cultivated in Morocco. Journal of Essential Oil Bearing Plants 18:112-123.

Gudžić B, Djokovic D, Vajs V, Palić R, Stojanovic G (2002). Composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Hypericum maculatum Crantz. Flavour and Fragrance Journal 17:392-394.

Hasanzadeh N (2005). Technological implication of natural products in plant diseases management with special emphasis on fire blight. Journal of Agricultural Sciences 11:53-68.

Holeman M, Ilidrissi A, Berrada M (1991). Flavonoids and sesquiterpene lactones of Artemisia mesatlantica. Planta Medica 57:198-199.

Iacobellis NS, Lo Cantore P, Capasso F, Senatore F (2005). Antibacterial activity of Cuminum cyminum L. and Carum carvi L. essential oils. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 53:57-61.

Iserin P (2001) Larousse encyclopédie des plantes médicinales. Identification, Préparations, soins 2nd Ed Dorling Kindersiey Limited, Londres.

Jalsenjak V, Peljnjak S, Kustrak D (1987). Microcapsules of sage oil: essential oils content and antimicrobial activity. Pharmazie 42:419-420.

Jirovetz L, Bail S, Buchbauer G, Denkova Z, Slavchev A, Stoyanova A, ...Geissler M (2006). Antimicrobial testings, gas chromatographic analysis and olfactory evaluation of an essential oil of hop cones (Humulus lupulus L.) from Bavaria and some of its main compounds. Scientia Pharmaceutica 74:189.

Johnson KB, Stockwell VO (1998). Management of fire blight: a case study in microbial ecology. Annual Review Phytopathology 36:227-248.

Karim H, Boubaker H, Askarne L, Talibi I, Msanda F, Boudyach EH, ... Ait Ben Aoumar A (2016). Antifungal properties of organic extracts of eight Cistus L. species against postharvest citrus sour rot. Letters in Applied Microbiology 62:16-22.

Kliks MM (1985). Studies on the traditional herbal anthelmintic Chenopodium ambrosioides L.: ethnopharmacological evaluation and clinical field trials. Social Science & Medicine 21:879-886.

Knobloch K, Pauli A, Iberl B, Weigand H, Weis N (1989). Antibacterial and antifungal properties of essential oil components. Journal of Essential Oil Research 1:119-128.

Kokoskova B, Pavela R (2007). Effectiveness of plant essential oils on the growth of Erwinia amylovora, the causal agent of fire blight disease. Pest Technology 1:76-80.

Llop P, Bonaterra A, Peñalver J, López MM (2000). Development of a highly sensitive nested-PCR procedure using a single closed tube for detection of Erwinia amylovora in asymptomatic plant material. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 66:2071-2078.

Lopes-Lutz D, Alviano DS, Alviano CS, Kolodziejczyk PP (2008). Screening of chemical composition, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of Artemisia essential oils. Phytochemistry 69:1732-1738.

Niño J, Narváez DM, Mosquera OM, Correa YM (2006). Antibacterial, antifungal and cytotoxic activities of eight Asteraceae and two Rubiaceae plants from Colombian biodiversity. Brazilian Journal of Microbiology 37:566-570.

Ouyahya A (1980). Etude taxinomique de six armoises endémiques du Maroc: morphologie, caryologie et chimio-taxinomie. (Doctoral dissertation, Éditeur inconnu).

Ouyahya A, Negre R, Viano J, Lozano YF, Gaydou EM (1990). Essential oils from Moroccan Artemisia negrei, A. mesatlantica and A. herba alba. Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft & Technologie 23:528-530.

Piqué N, Miñana-Galbis D, Merino S, Tomás JM (2015). Virulence factors of Erwinia amylovora: A Review. International Journal of Molecular Sciences 16:16.

Ponce AG, Fritz R, Del Valle C, Roura SI (2003). Antimicrobial activity of essential oils on the native microflora of organic Swiss chard. LWT-Food Science and Technology 36:679-684.

Prudent D, Perineau F, Bessiere JM, Michel G, Bravo R (1993). Chemical analysis, bacteriostatic and fungistatic properties of the essential oil of the Atoumau from Martinique (Alpinia speciosa K. Schum.). Journal Essential of Oil Research 5:255-264.

Rashidch A, Qureshi MZ, Raza SA, William J, Arshad M (2010). Quantitative determination of antioxidant potential of Artemisia persica. Analele UniversităŃii din Bucuresti-Chimie (serie nouă). 19(1):23-30.

Senatore F, Napolitano F, Apostolides Arnold N, Bruno, M, Herz, W (2005). Composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Achillea falcata L. (Asteraceae). Flavour and Fragrance Journal 20:291-294.

Serban ES, Ionescu M, Matinca D, Soria JA, Espinoza LV, Martinez JV, Arbizú DA (2011). Screening of the antibacterial and antifungal activity of eight volatile essential oils. Farmacia 59:440-446.

Sharifazizi M, Harighi B, Sadeghi A (2017). Evaluation of biological control of Erwinia amylovora, causal agent of fire blight disease of pear by antagonistic bacteria. Biological Control 104:28–34.

Singh US, Singh RP, Kohmoto K (1995). Pathogenesis and host specificity in plant diseases: Histopathological, biochemical, genetic and molecular bases. Elsevier Science Ltd., Oxford.

Sivropoulou A, Nikolaou C, Papanikolaou E, Kokkini S, Lanaras T… Arsenakis M (1997). Antimicrobial, cytotoxic, and antiviral activities of Salvia fructicosa essential oil. Journal of Agricultural and food Chemistry 45:3197-3201.

Sterne M (1967) Distribution and economic importance of anthrax. Federation Proceedings 26:1493-1495

Talibi I, Askarne L, Boubaker H, Boudyach EH, Msanda F, Saadi B, Aoumar AAB (2012). Antifungal activity of Moroccan medicinal plants against citrus sour rot agent Geotrichum candidum. Letters in Applied Microbiology 55:155-161.

Tantaoui-Elaraki A, Lattaoui N, Errifi A, Benjilali B (1993). Composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oils of Thymus broussonettii, T. zygis and T. satureioides. Journal of Essential Oil Research 5:45-53.

Vanneste JL (2000). Fire blight: the disease and its causative agent, Erwinia amylovora. CABI.

Wang H-F, Yih K-H, Huang K-F (2010). Comparative study of the antioxidant activity of forty-five commonly used essential oils and their potential active components. Journal of Food and Drug Analysis 18:24-33.

Yakoubi S, Cherrat ALI, Alaoui M, Zair T (2014). Efficacité des huiles essentielles de Thymus zygis subsp. Gracilis vis-à-vis d'Erwinia amylovora (Burrill) Winslow et al. Agent du feu bactérien. Sciencelib Editions de Mersenne 6:2014.

Zaim A, El Ghadraoui L, Farah A (2012). Effets des huiles essentielles d’Artemisia herba-alba sur la survie des criquets adultes d’Euchorthippus albolineatus (Lucas, 1849). Bulletin de l’institut scientifique, Rabat, section Sciences de la Vie 34(2):127-133.



How to Cite

DOUKKALI, L., TAHIRI, A., ASKARNE, L., TAZI, B., GUENOUN, F., EZRARI, S., & LAHLALI, R. (2022). Chemical composition and antibacterial activity of Moroccan Artemisia mesatlantica and A. absinthium essential oils against fire blight caused by Erwinia amylovora. Notulae Scientia Biologicae, 14(2), 11173.



Research articles
DOI: 10.55779/nsb14211173