Post-monsoon bird assemblages in rural and riverine environments of Northern Howrah, West Bengal, India: A spatio-temporal approach
Keywords:agricultural land, avian assemblages, bamboo forest, riverside, South Bengal
The primary goal of this study was to evaluate avian assemblages in four different land types (Wetland Associated Bamboo Forest, Agricultural Land, Wetland Associated Agricultural Land and Riverside Agricultural Land) located in a flood prone area of South Bengal during the post monsoon months of 2020. Surveys were conducted for 48 days in a land type and time dependent manner to explore the changes in abundance, dominance, evenness and species richness. A total of 18654 observations belonging to 16 orders, 44 families, 70 genera and 81 species were recorded. Despite having lowest total count and third species rich area, Bamboo Forest emerged as the most diverse area with the highest Shannon index (3.37), Evenness index (0.4616) and lowest dominance index (0.06108). Bamboo forests exhibited the maximum values of Simpson 1-D (0.9389), Brillouin index (3.312), Menhinick Index (1.261), Equitability (0.8134) and alpha diversity (Fisher’s alpha 11.74). Having maximum number of species occurrence (69), Riverside agricultural land was found to be the least diverse land type (Shannon index 2.847) showing highest value of dominance (0.1203). December attracted the most diverse (Shannon index 3.474) bird community and October showed the lowest value of Shannon index (2.919) with maximum value of dominance (0.123). We conclude that protection of natural habitats like bamboo forests, wetland and tree cover in small villages and proper management of agricultural lands is necessary for promoting species diversity and evenness in a rural environment.
Ali S, Ripley SD (1987). Compact Handbook of the Birds of India and Pakistan together with those of Bangladesh, Nepal, Bhutan, and Sri Lanka. Oxford University Press, Delhi, pp 737.
Amat JA, Green AJ (2010). Waterbirds as bioindicators of environmental conditions. In: Hurford C, Schneider M, Cowx I (Eds). Conservation Monitoring in Freshwater Habitats. Springer, Dordrecht pp 45-52. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4020-9278-7_5
Arscott DB, Tockner K, Ward JV (2000). Aquatic habitat diversity along the corridor of an Alpine floodplain river (Fiume Tagliamento, Italy). Archiv für Hydrobiologie 149(4):679-704. https://doi.org/10.1127/archiv-hydrobiol/149/2000/679
Ausden M, Sutherland WJ, James R (2001). The effects of flooding lowland wet grassland on soil macroinvertebrate prey of breeding wading birds. Journal of Applied Ecology 38:320-338.https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2664.2001.00600.x
Balaji S, Baskaran S, Rajan MK, PavarajM (2013). Investigation of the causes for the decline of house sparrow, Passer domesticus in Sivakasi Taluk, Virudhunagar District, Tamil Nadu, India. World Journal of Zoology 8 (3):278-284.
Biswas S, Banerjee A (2016). Studies on avifaunal diversity of Santragachi Wetland, West Bengal, India. Asian Journal of Water, Environment and Pollution 13:29-36. https://doi.org/10.3233/AJW-160024
Buckton ST, Ormerod SJ (1997). Use of a new standardised habitat survey for assessing the habitat preferences and distribution of upland river birds. Bird Study 44:327-337. https://doi.org/10.1080/00063659709461068
Buckton ST, Ormerod SJ (2002). Global patterns of diversity among the specialist birds of riverine landscapes. Freshwater Biology 47(4): 695-709. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2427.2002.00891.x
Buckton ST, Ormerod SJ (2008). Niche segregation of Himalayan River birds. Journal of Field Ornithology 79(2):176-185. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1557-9263.2008.00160.x
Chakraborty A, Das S, Ash A, Saha GK, Aditya G (2020). Bird species assemblages in railway stations: variations along an urban-rural gradient. Ornis Hungarica 28(2):85-110.https://doi.org/10.2478/orhu-2020-0019
Csanády A, Mošanský L (2017). Public Cemetery as a biodiversity hotspot for birds and mammals in the urban environment of Kosice city (Slovakia). Zoology and Ecology 27(3-4):185-195.https://doi.org/10.1080/21658005.2017.1366024
Dandapat A, Banerjee D, Chakraborty D (2010). The case of the disappearing House Sparrow. Veterinary World 3(2):97-100.
Daniels RJR (2008). Can we save the sparrow? Current Science 95(11):1527-1528.
Deikumah JP, Kwafo R, Konadu VA (2017). Land use types influenced avian assemblage structure in a forest-agriculture landscape in Ghana. Ecology and evolution 7(21):8685-8697.https://doi.org/10.1002/ece3.3355
Ghosh P, Chakraborty A, Sengupta S (2021). Winter avifaunal assemblage in a periurban agricultural landscape of Gangetic West Bengal, India. Ecology, Environment and Conservation 27(1):323-331.
Ghosh S, Kim KH, Bhattacharya R (2010). A survey on house sparrow population decline at Bandel, West Bengal, India. Journal of the Korean Earth Science Society 31(5):448-453.https://doi.org/10.5467/jkess.2010.31.5.448
Grimmett R, Inskipp C, Inskipp T (2011). Birds of the Indian Subcontinent. 2nd Edition. London, Oxford University Press and Christopher Helm, pp 528.
Guilherme E, Santos MPD (2009). Birds associated with bamboo forests in eastern Acre, Brazil. Bulletin of the British Ornithologists' Club 129(4):229-240.
Hammer Ø, Harper DAT, Ryan PD (2001). PAST: paleontological statistics software package for education and data analysis. Palaeontologia Electronica 4(1):1-9.
Haney A, Apfelbaum S, Burris J (2008). Thirty years of post-fire succession in a Southern Boreal Forest bird community. The American Midland Naturalist 159(2):421-433.http://www.jstor.org/stable/20491346
Hossain A, Aditya G (2014). Avian diversity in agricultural landscape: records from Burdwan, West Bengal, India. Proceedings of the Zoological Society 69:38-51. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12595-014-0118-3
Khan T (2010). Temporal changes to the abundance and community structure of migratory waterbirds in Santragachhi Lake, West Bengal, and their relationship with water hyacinth cover. Current Science 99:1570-1577.
Kowarik I, Buchholz S, von der Lippe M, Seitz B (2016). Biodiversity functions of urban cemeteries: Evidence from one of the largest Jewish cemeteries in Europe. Urban Forestry & Urban Greening 19:68-78. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ufug.2016.06.023
Lou YP, Henley G (2010). Biodiversity in bamboo forests: a policy perspective for long term sustainability. International Network for Bamboo and Rattan (INBAR) Beijing 59:1-17.
Majumdar N, Roy CS, Ghosal DK, Dasgupta JM, Basuroy S,Datta BK (1992). Fauna of West Bengal. State Fauna Series 3. Part 1. In: Zoological Survey of India. Calcutta, pp171-418.
Martínez JC (2012). Birds as bioindicators of pollution in aquatic and terrestrial environments. Ph.D Thesis. University of Barcelona, pp 327.http://hdl.handle.net/2445/35946
Mazumdar S, Mookherjee K, Saha GK (2007). Migratory waterbirds of wetlands of southern West Bengal, India. Indian Birds 3:42-45.
Mukhopadhyay S, Mazumdar S (2019). Habitat-wise composition and foraging guilds of avian community in a suburban landscape of lower Gangetic plains, West Bengal, India. Biologia 74:1001-1010. https://doi.org/10.2478/s11756-019-00226-x
Mukhopadhyay S, Mazumdar S (2017). Composition, diversity and foraging guilds of avifauna in a suburban area of southern West Bengal, India. The Ring 39:103-120.https://doi.org/10.1515/ring-2017-0004
Nandi NC, Venkataraman K, Das SR, Bhuinya S, Das SK (1999). Faunal resources of West Bengal 2. Some selected wetlands of Haora and Hugli Districts. Records of Zoological Survey of India 97:103-143.
Nayak A (2020). Blue Rock-thrush Monticola solitarius pandoo: First record from the southern West Bengal, India. Ela Journal of Forestry and Wildlife 9(2):657-661.
Norris K (2008). Agriculture and biodiversity conservation: Opportunity knocks. Conservation Letters 1:2-11. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1755-263X.2008.00007.x
Ormerod SJ (1999). Three challenges for the science of river conservation. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 9:551-558. https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1099-0755(199911/12)9:6<551::AID-AQC387>3.0.CO;2-E
Padoa-Schioppa E, Baietto M, Massa R, Bottoni L (2006). Bird communities as bioindicators: the focal species concept in agricultural landscapes. Ecological Indicators 6:83-93. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolind.2005.08.006
Palit S (2018). Status of Santragachi wetland birds with special reference to their conservation strategies. International Journal of Zoology Studies 3:18-20.
Patra A, Santra KB, Manna CK (2010). Relationship among the abundance of waterbird species diversity, macrophytes, macroinvertebrates and physico-chemical characteristics in Santragachi Jheel, Howrah, W.B, India. Acta Zoologica Bulgarica 62:277-300.
Perfecto I, Vandermeer J (2002). Quality of agroecological matrix in a tropical montane landscape: Ants in coffee plantations in southern Mexico. Conservation Biology 16:174-182. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1523-1739.2002.99536.x
Poiani A (2006). Effects of floods on distribution and reproduction of aquatic birds. Floods in an arid continent. Advances in Ecological Research 63-83. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0065-2504(06)39004-6
Praveen J, Jayapal R, Pittie A (2016). A checklist of the birds of India. Indian Birds 11(5-6):113-170.
Rahmani AR, Islam MZ, Kasambe RM (2016). Important bird and biodiversity areas in India: Priority sites for conservation. Bombay Natural History Society, Indian Bird Conservation Network, pp1992.
Rajashekar S, Venkatesha MG (2008). Occurrence of house sparrow, Passer domesticus indicus in and around Bangalore. Current Science 94(4):446-449.
Rodrigues JL, Pellizari VH, Mueller R, Baek K, Jesus EC, Paula FS, … Nüsslein K (2013). Conversion of the Amazon rainforest to agriculture results in biotic homogenization of soil bacterial communities. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 110(3):988-993. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1220608110
Roshnath R, Arjun CP, Ashli J, Sethu D, Gokul P (2018). Status survey and conservation of the House Sparrow Passer domesticus (Aves: Passeriformes: Passeridae) through public participation in Kannur, Kerala, India. Journal of Threatened Taxa 10(8):12098-12102. https://doi.org/10.11609/jott.3518.104.22.16898-12102
Rother DC, Alves KJ, Pizo M (2013). Avian assemblages in bamboo and non-bamboo habitats in a tropical rainforest. Emu Austral Ornithology 113:52-61. http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/MU12017
Roy S, Pashi R, Dey S, Jha S (2016). Diversity of birds at crop fields of Mondouri, West Bengal. The Journal of Plant Protection Sciences 8(1-2):12-17. http://dx.doi.org/10.17582/journal.jpps/2016/8.1-2.12-17
Sau M, Chakraborty M, Das R, Mukherjee S (2018). Effect of multiple adjoining habitats on avifaunal diversity in an agriculture-based wetland adjacent to the Hooghly River, West Bengal, India. The Ring 40(1):59-83. https://doi.org/10.1515/ring-2018-0004
Sinha A, Chatterjee N, Ormerod S, Singh Adhikari B, Krishnamurthy R (2019). River birds as potential indicators of local- and catchment-scale influences on Himalayan River ecosystems. Ecosystems and People 15(1):90-101. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/26395916.2019.1591508
Socolar SJ, Robinson S, Terborgh J (2013). Bird diversity and occurrence of bamboo specialists in two bamboo die-offs in south-eastern Peru. The Condor 115(2):253-262.
Sundar K, Subramanya S (2010). Bird use of rice fields in the Indian Subcontinent. Waterbirds 33:44-70. https://doi.org/10.1675/063.033.s104
Tryjanowski P, Morelli F, Mikula P, Krištín A, Indykiewicz P, Grzywaczewski G, … Jerzak L (2017). Bird diversity in urban green space: A large-scale analysis of differences between parks and cemeteries in Central Europe. Urban Forestry & Urban Greening 27:264-271. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ufug.2017.08.014
Tu HM, Fan MW, Ko JCJ (2020). Different habitat types affect bird richness and evenness. Scientific Reports 1221:1-10. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-58202-4
Villaseñor NR, Escobar MAH (2019). Cemeteries and biodiversity conservation in cities: how do landscape and patch-level attributes influence bird diversity in urban park cemeteries? Urban Ecosystems. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11252-019-00877-3
Ward JV, Tockner K (2001). Biodiversity: towards a unifying theme for river ecology. Freshwater Biology 46:807-820. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2427.2001.00713.x
Ward JV, Tockner K, Schiemer F (1999). Biodiversity of floodplain river ecosystems: ecotones and connectivity. Regulated Rivers: Research and Management 15:125-139. https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1099-1646(199901/06)15:1/3<125::AID-RRR523>3.0.CO;2-E
Ward JV, Tockner K, Arscott DB, Claret C (2002). Riverine landscape diversity. Freshwater Biology 47:517-539. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2427.2002.00893.x
How to Cite
Papers published in Notulae Scientia Biologicae are Open-Access, distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution License.
© Articles by the authors; licensee SMTCT, Cluj-Napoca, Romania. The journal allows the author(s) to hold the copyright/to retain publishing rights without restriction.
Open Access Journal - the journal offers free, immediate, and unrestricted access to peer-reviewed research and scholarly work, due SMTCT supports to increase the visibility, accessibility and reputation of the researchers, regardless of geography and their budgets. Users are allowed to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of the articles, or use them for any other lawful purpose, without asking prior permission from the publisher or the author.