Study on the effect of γ-irradiation (Co-60) on seed germination and agronomic traits in tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum L.)
Keywords:BARI tomato-8, GR50, irradiation, LD50, mutation breeding, shelf life
Mutagenesis is an important technique for creating novel mutants having improved agronomic traits. In this study, LD50 was determined at 807 Gy depending on the germination percentage of tomato seeds irradiated with cobalt-60, using absorbed gray (Gy) dose of 50, 100, 150, 200, 250, 500, and 1000 Gy with control. GR30 and GR50 values were 214 and 502 Gy based on the regression formula on seedling length. Though LD50 is important, the dose range between 214(GR30) and 502(GR50) is more functional to get desirable mutation as the survival of the mutants is more important than germination. The variation was observed in all of the agronomical traits among the treatments. Most of the morphological traits were found better at 250 Gy in comparison with the control and the value decreased sharply at higher doses followed. The highest weight of single fruit was 145.33 g recorded at 250 Gy while the lowest was 70.67 g noted at 500 Gy. The highest fruit yield per plant was 1270 gm obtained at 250 Gy and the lowest was 800 gm found at 500 Gy. Shelf life was found better (34 days) at the 250 Gy dose level and the lowest was 6 days got in the control treatments.
Akand MH, Mazed HEMK, Pulok MAI, Chowdhury MSN, Moonmoon JF (2015). Effect of organic manures on assessment of shelf life of tomato varieties (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.). International Journal of Applied Research 1(5):94-97.
Andress EL, Delaplane KS, Schuler GA (1994). Food irradiation. Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences University of Florida, USA.
Ashenafi H, Tura S (2018). Shelf life and quality of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) fruits as affected by different packaging materials. African Journal of Food Science 12:21-27. https://doi.org/10.5897/AJFS2017.1568
Beecher GR (1998). Nutrient content of tomatoes and tomato products. Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine 218:98-100. https://doi.org/10.3181/00379727-218-44282a
Behera M, Panigrahi J, Mishra, RR, Rath SP (2012). Analysis of EMS induced in vitro mutants of Asteracantha longifolia (L.) Nees using RAPD markers. Indian Journal of Biotechnology 11:39-47.
Bewley JD, Black M (1982). Physiology and biochemistry of seeds. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, pp 20:97-97.
Boyazoglu J (2002). Point of view on GM organisms and traditional products - genuineness or innovation? Livestock Production Science 74(3):287-290.
Broertjes C (1978). Application of mutation breeding methods in the improvement of vegetatively propagated crops: an interpretative literature review. Elsevier Scientific Publishing Company, Amsterdam, Netherlands.
Brunner H (1995). Radiation induced mutations for plant selection. Applied Radiation and Isotopes 46:589-594. https://doi.org/10.1016/0969-8043(95)00096-8
Chaim AB, Borovsky Y, Rao G, Gur A, Zamir D, Paran I (2006). Comparative QTL mapping of fruit size and shape in tomato and pepper. Israel Journal of Plant Sciences 54:191-203.
Chaudhary J, Alisha A, Bhatt V, Chandanshive S, Kumar N, Sonah H, … Shivaraj SMS (2019). Mutation breeding in tomato: Advances, applicability and challenges. Plants 8(5):128. https://doi.org/10.3390/plants8050128
Chodhry M, Ambreen A, Khaliq I (2002). Genetic control of some polygenic traits in Aestivum species. Asian Journal of Plant Sciences 1:235-237. https://doi.org/10.3923/ajps.2002.235.237
Das P, Ansari A, Islam MN, Sarker RH (2015). Genetic transformation of a local tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) variety of Bangladesh. Plant Tissue Culture and Biotechnology 25:87-97. https://doi.org/10.3329/ptcb.v25i1.24128
Dielen V, Lecouvet V, Dupont S, Kinet JM (2001). In vitro control of floral transition in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.), the model for autonomously flowering plants, using the late flowering uniflora mutant. Journal of Experimental Botany 52:715-723. https://doi.org/10.1093/jexbot/52.357.715
Doganlar S, Frary A, Daunay MC, Leste RN, Tanksley SD (2002). Conservation of gene function in the Solanaceae as revealed by comparative mapping of domestication traits in eggplant. Genetics 161:1713-1726. https://doi.org/10.1093/genetics/161.4.1713
El-Lakany MH, Sziklai O (1970). Effects of gamma-irradiation on some Western conifers. Radiation Botany 10:411-420. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0033-7560(70)80003-5
Emovon EU (1996). Keynote Address: Symposium on Irradiation for National Development. Abuja, Nigeria.
FAOSTAT (2018). Retrieved from http://www.fao.org/faostat/es/#compare
Gaul H (1977). Mutagen effects in the first generation after seed treatment. Manual on Mutation Breeding Technical Reports Series 119:87-98. Vienna, Austria.
Gonzalez C, Mukandama JP, Fuentes JL, Mansoor MA (2005). Induction of drought tolerance in tomato using 60Co gamma ray irradiation. Mutation Breeding Newsletter and Reviews 9-10.
Grandillo S, Ku HM, Tanksley SD (1999). Identifying the loci responsible for natural variation in fruit size and shape in tomato. Theoretical and Applied Genetics 99:978-987. https://doi.org/10.1007/s001220051405
Gunckel JK, Sparrow AH (1961). Ionizing radiations: biochemical, physiological and morphological aspects of their effects on plants. Encyclopedia of Plant Physiology 16:555-611.
Hegarty TW (1978). The physiology of seed hydration and dehydration, and the relation between water stress and the control of germination: a review. Plant, Cell and Environment 1:101-119. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-3040.1978.tb00752.x
Hobson G, Grierson D(1993). Tomato. In: Seymour GB, Taylor JE, Tucker GA (Eds). Biochemistry of Fruit Ripening. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 405-442.
Jamie H (2002). Induced mutations: increasing agricultural quality and yield of tomato. Athena High Sch. Sci. Res. Program, Greece, pp 132-145.
Kulawiec M, Tagashira N, Plader W, Bartoszewski G, Kuć D, Śniezko R, Malepszy S (2003). Chromosome number variation in somatic hybrids between transgenic tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) and Solanum lycopersicoides. Journal of Applied Genetics 44:431-447.
Masuda MO, Ojiewo CO (2006). Induced mutagensis as a breeding strategy for improvement of Solanaceous vegetables. Recent Fruit and Potentiality of Mutation Breeding, pp 47-60.
Matas AJ, Gapper NE, Chung M, Giovannoni JJ, Rose JKC (2009). Biology and genetic engineering of fruit maturation for enhanced quality and shelf-life. Current Opinion in Biotechnology 20:197-203. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.copbio.2009.02.015
Matsukura C, Yamaguchi I, Inamura M, Ban Y, Kobayashi Y, Yin YG, … Nishimur S (2007). Generation of gamma irradiation-induced mutant lines of the miniature tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) cultivar “Micro-Tom.” Plant Biotechnology 24:39-44.
Mayer AM, Poljakoff-Mayber A (1989). The Germination of Seeds. 4th Ed. Pergamon Press, Oxford.
Meli VS, Ghosh S, Prabha TN, Chakraborty N, Chakraborty S, Datta A (2010). Enhancement of fruit shelf life by suppressing N -glycan processing enzymes. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 107:2413-2418. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0909329107
Menda N, Semel Y, Peled D, Eshed Y, Zamir D (2004). In silico screening of a saturated mutation library of tomato. The Plant Journal 38:861-872. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-313X.2004.02088.x
Norfadzrin F, Ahmed OH, Shaharudin S, Abdul Rahman D (2007). A preliminary study on gamma radiosensitivity of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) and okra (Abelmoschus esculentus). International Journal of Agricultural Research 2(7):620-625. https://doi.org/10.3923/ijar.2007.620.625
Qaim M (2009). The economics of genetically modified crops. Annual Review of Resource Economics 1:665-694. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.resource.050708.144203
Sarker RH, Islam K, Hoque MI (2009). In vitro regeneration and Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.). Plant Tissue Culture and Biotechnology 19:101-111. https://doi.org/10.3329/ptcb.v19i1.5004
Smith C, Watson C, Ray J, Bird C, Morris P, Schuch W, Grierson D (1988). Antisense RNA inhibition of polyga-lacturonase gene-expression in transgenic tomatoes. Nature 334:724-726. https://doi.org/10.1038/334724a0
Songsri P, Surinam B, Sanitchon J, Srisawangwong S, Kesmala T (2011). Effects of gamma radiation on germination and growth characteristics of physic nut (Jatropha curcas L.). Journal of Biological Sciences 11:268-274. https://doi.org/10.3923/jbs.2011.268.274
Subburamu K, Singaravelu M, Nazar A, Irulappan I (1990). Effect of stage of harvest in tomato cultivars in improving the shelf life and fruit quality. South Indian Horticulture 38:199-203.
Tian S, Jiang L, Cui X, Zhang J, Guo S, Li M, … Xu Y (2018). Engineering herbicide-resistant watermelon variety through CRISPR/Cas9-mediated base-editing. Plant Cell Reports 37:1353-1356. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00299-018-2299-0
Tomlekova (2010). Induced mutagenesis for crop improvement in Bulgaria. Plant Mutation Reports 2:4-27.
Tripathi JN, Ntui VO, Ron M, Muiruri SK, Britt A, Tripathi L (2019). CRISPR/Cas9 editing of endogenous banana streak virus in the B genome of Musa spp. overcomes a major challenge in banana breeding. Communications Biology 2:1-11. https://doi.org/10.1038/s42003-019-0288-7
Uma M, Sharma SN (1997). Genetics of yield determining factors in spring wheat over environments. Indian Journal of Genetics and Plant Breeding 57:235-237.
Yao L, Zhang Y, Liu C, Liu Y, Wang Y, Liang D, Liu J, Sahoo G, Kelliher T (2018). OsMATL mutation induces haploid seed formation in indica rice. Nature Plants 4:530-553. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41477-018-0193-y
How to Cite
Papers published in Notulae Scientia Biologicae are Open-Access, distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution License.
© Articles by the authors; licensee SMTCT, Cluj-Napoca, Romania. The journal allows the author(s) to hold the copyright/to retain publishing rights without restriction.
Open Access Journal - the journal offers free, immediate, and unrestricted access to peer-reviewed research and scholarly work, due SMTCT supports to increase the visibility, accessibility and reputation of the researchers, regardless of geography and their budgets. Users are allowed to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of the articles, or use them for any other lawful purpose, without asking prior permission from the publisher or the author.