Vulvo-vaginal myiasis among rural women in West Bengal, India
Keywords:Chrysomya bezziana, Chrysomya megacephala, myiasis, poor hygiene, rural areas
Myiasis, the infestation of living or dead tissue of vertebrates by larvae (maggots) of dipterous flies, is well-known in the medical field. Different parts of the human body, such as skin, oral, nasal, urogenital are affected and named accordingly. The present study was a clinic-entomological study where the women having vulvo-vaginal myiasis were included. Maggots were collected, cultured, and adult flies were identified. A total of 34 cases of vulvo-vaginal myiasis were treated. The larvae of 29 cases were cultured into adults. Most of the women are rural (94%), illiterate and from a low socioeconomic society. The authors specified the infested sites of vulva and vagina such as vaginal, labia, clitoris, episiotomy wound, vulval growth, and prolapsed uterus. The episiotomy wound (32%) is the most common infestation site, followed by the vagina (26%). Chrysomya bezziana (76%) and Chrysomya megacephala (24%) are the identified flies. Illiterate, rural puerperal mothers of low socioeconomic status without proper health education and basic hygiene knowledge are vulnerable to myiasis.
Beyramysoltan S, Ventura MI, Rosati JY, Giffen-Lemieux JE, Musah RA (2020). Identification of the species constituents of maggot populations feeding on decomposing remains-facilitation of the determination of post mortem interval and time since tissue infestation through application of machine learning and direct analysis in real time-mass spectrometry. Analytical Chemistry 92:5439-5446. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.analchem.0c00199
Bury TL, Clegern RW, Hart WW (1979). Two cases of phorid (Diptera: Phoridae) myiasis in Texas. Journal of Medical Entomology 15:122-123.
Calvopina M, Ortiz-Prado E, Castañeda B, Cueva I, Rodriguez-Hidalgo R, Cooper PJ (2020). Human myiasis in Ecuador. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases 14:e0007858. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007858
Caumes E, Carrière J, Guermonprez G, Bricaire F, Danis M, Gentilini M (1995). Dermatoses associated with travel to tropical countries: a prospective study of the diagnosis and management of 269 patients presenting to a tropical disease unit. Clinical Infectious Diseases 20:542-8. https://doi.org/10.1093/clinids/20.3.542
Chan JC, Lee JS, Dai DL, Woo J (2005). Unusual cases of human myiasis due to Old World screwworm fly acquired indoors in Hong Kong. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 99:914-8. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.trstmh.2005.06.020
Chigusa Y, Shinonaga S, Honda M, Kanma W, Kakinuma H, Kirinoki M, Matsuda H (2005). Vaginal myiasis due to Sarcophaga peregrina (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) on a patient with atrial fibrillation, cerebral infarction and leg amputation. Medical Entomology and Zoology 56:247-9. https://doi.org/10.7601/mez.56.247
Dohiya K, Khosla AH (2002). Vulvo-vaginal infestation with maggots. International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics 79:55-56. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0020-7292(02)00142-x
Francesconi F, Lupi O (2012). Myiasis. Clinical Microbiology Reviews 25:79-105. https://doi.org/10.1128/CMR.00010-11
Fonseca‐Muñoz A, Sarmiento‐Jiménez HE, Pérez‐Pacheco R, Thyssen PJ, Sherman RA (2020). Clinical study of maggot therapy for Fournier's gangrene. International Wound Journal 17:1642-9. https://doi.org/10.1111/iwj.13444
Garbeloto E, de Souza-Trindade B, Alves-Canal F, Chambô-Filho A (2013). Genital and breast myiasis: case series. The Journal of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology 36:98-104.
Gupta R, Singh I, Sharma SB, Patel J (2014). White discharge per vaginum: can it be vaginal myiasis? Indian Obstetrics and Gynaecology 4:30-32.
Kataria U, Siwach S, Gupta S (2013). Myiasis in female external genitalia. Indian Journal of Sexually Transmitted Diseases and AIDS 34:129-131. https://doi.org/10.4103/0253-7184.120555
Mondal PC, Mahato S, Chakraborty B, Sinha SK (2016). First report of Oriental latrine flies causing vaginal myiasis in human. Journal of Parasitic Diseases 40:1243-1245. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12639-015-0660-6
Robbins K, Khachemoune A (2010). Cutaneous myiasis: a review of the common types of myiasis. International Journal of Dermatology 2010 49:1092-1098. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-4632.2010.04577.x
Paul S, Upreti P, Makhija A, Nautiyal R (2021). Urogenital myiasis–An atypical presentation. Autopsy and Case Reports 11:e2020192. https://doi.org/10.4322/acr.2020.192
Saldarriaga W, Herrera E, Castro D (2011). Myasis in uterine prolapse, successful treatment. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 205:e5-6. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajog.2011.03.019
Senior-White R, Aubertin D, Smart J (1940). Fauna of British India, including the remainder of the Oriental Region: Diptera. Family Calliphoridae. Taylor and Francis, London.
Sherman RA (2000). Wound myiasis in urban and suburban United States. International Archives of Internal Medicine 160:2004-2014. https://doi.org/10.1001/archinte.160.13.2004
Smith KGV (1986). A manual of forensic entomology. Trustees of the British Museum. Natural History and Cornell University Press, London.
Soulsby H, Jones BL, Coyne M, Alexander CL (2016). An unusual case of vaginal myiasis. JMM Case Reports 3:e005060. https://doi.org/10.1099/jmmcr.0.005060
Ziaei Hezarjaribi H, Taghavi M, Fakhar M, Seyrafi A, Enayati AA (2014). Vaginal myiasis due to Fannia scalaris. International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics 127:300. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijgo.2014.07.017
How to Cite
Papers published in Notulae Scientia Biologicae are Open-Access, distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution License.
© Articles by the authors; licensee SMTCT, Cluj-Napoca, Romania. The journal allows the author(s) to hold the copyright/to retain publishing rights without restriction.
Open Access Journal - the journal offers free, immediate, and unrestricted access to peer-reviewed research and scholarly work, due SMTCT supports to increase the visibility, accessibility and reputation of the researchers, regardless of geography and their budgets. Users are allowed to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of the articles, or use them for any other lawful purpose, without asking prior permission from the publisher or the author.