Inhibition of Fusarium oxysporum wilt of scarlet eggplant (Solanum aethiopicum) using plant extracts
Solanum aethiopicum cultivation is highly constrained by Fusarium wilt. A trial was conducted to control soil-borne and seed-borne F. oxysporum f.sp. melongenae using botanicals (ginger and garlic extracts). Seeds of Bello variety of eggplant were used for the trial. The trial was set up using completely randomized design with nine treatments and each treatment replicated thrice. Data were collected on percentage germination, shoot height, number of leaves, plant vigour, shoot weight, disease incidence and disease severity. The results shows that treatment T9 has the lowest percentage germination (18.3%) at 7 DAS which is lower than T1 (44.2%) or mean (48.1%). T7 permits 72.5% germination which is at par with T6 (83.3%) at 15 DAS. Based on germination, T8, T5, T6 and T7 tops the chart (≥ 72.3% germination) compared to T9 (50.8%) at 15 DAS. The incidence of wilt is highest (33.4%) in T9 compared to all treated plots. T4, and T2 are the best treatments (0.0% incidence) at 45 DAS. Percentage severity of wilt follows the same trend as incidence. Based on shoot weight, T8 (8.3 g) and T7 (7.0 g) are the best treatments. The highest vigour index (45 DAS) is from T3 (823) followed by T2 (769), T5 (692), T7 (658) then T1 (604) in descending order of vigour index and mean vigour index is 582. It is concluded that the infection of eggplant by Fusarium sp. affects germination of seeds and subsequent growth in the absence of control measures. However, control of Fusarium sp. is possible with the use of botanicals.
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