Health risk assessment and heavy metal bioaccumulation in vegetables irrigated with waste water in Kano State, Nigeria
Keywords:bioaccumulation; health risk assessment; vegetables; wastewater
Intake of vegetables grown in heavy metals contaminated soils is one of the most common food chain routes for exposure of human. For this purpose, this research aimed at evaluating the concentration of heavy metals (cadmium-Cd, lead-Pb and zinc-Zn) in vegetables such as spinach (S), lettuce (L), and onion (O), irrigated with two different wastewater sources in Kano State Nigeria. Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometric analysis (AAS) was used in this research to determine the metal levels. Zn (0.17-0.12 mg/l) was detected in the wastewater, as well as in the irrigated soil (8.36-33.64 mg/kg), while Cd and Pb were not detected in both the wastewater and irrigated soils. Furthermore, between (1.50-27.05 mg/kg) of Zn was detected in the assayed vegetables (S, L and O). However, there was no significant difference (p<0.05) between the Zn content of the two wastewater sites. Lactuca sativa was observed to have the highest Zn concentration (27.5 mg/kg) in site A, while Spinacia oleracea had the lowest Zn concentration (1.5 mg/kg). Zn levels in all the samples analysed in this study were below the permissible limit of 100 mg/kg in vegetables, 50 mg/kg in soil and 5mg/l in wastewater set by FAO/WHO. However, Pb and Cd were not detected in all the samples. Bioaccumulation factor was found ranging from 0.32-41.17 mg/kg and the pollution index ranged from (0.46-1.80 µg g-1). This indicated potential health risk from Zn in people who are consuming these vegetables for long period of time due to biomagnification. This research suggested that frequent test should be carried out to monitor the accumulation and, farmers should be sensitized on the importance of treating irrigation water before agricultural usage.
Anderson PT, Devi ZHT, Diggins T, Stanford Z, Stone V, Roth S, … Smith JB (2017). Nutrition analysis of cherry juice. Scientia Pomologica Journal 19:234-241. https://doi.org/10.7016/j.tnverpvoc.2010.102005
Ahmad JU, Goni MA (2010). Heavy metal contamination in water, soil, and vegetables of the industrial areas in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 166:347-357. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-009-1006-6
Alam MG, Snow ET, Tanaka A (2003). Arsenic and heavy metal contamination of vegetables grown in Santa village, Bangladesh. Science of the Total Environment 308:83-96. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0048-9697(02)00651-4
AL-Jaboobi M, Zouahri A, Tijane M, Housni AE, Mennane Z, Yachou H, Bouksaim M (2014). Evaluation of heavy metals pollution in groundwater, soil and some vegetables irrigated with wastewater in the Skhirat region Morocco. Journal of Materials and Environmental Science 5(3):961-966.
ATSDR (2007). Toxicological profile for zinc. http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/csem/zinc/znzinc2
Cempel M, Nikel G (2006). Nickel: a review of its sources and environmental toxicology. Polish Journal of Environmental Studies 15(3):375-382.
Chen Y, Wang C, Wang Z (2005). Residues and source identification of persistent organic pollutants in farmland soils irrigated by effluents from biological treatment plants. Environment International 31: 778-783. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2005.05.024
Fatoba PO, Ogunkunle CO, Oyedeji AA, Oladimeji OO (2012). Assessment of heavy metal contents of Lycopersicum esculentum (tomato) and Capsicum chinense (pepper) irrigated with treated and untreated detergent and soap wastewaters. Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies and Management 5(4-1):506-510. https//doi.org/10.4314/ejesm.v5i4.S10
García I, Diez M, Martín F, Simón M, Dorronsoro C (2009). Mobility of arsenic and heavy metal in a sandy-loam textured and carbonated soil. Pedosphere 19:166-1755. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1002-0160(09)60106-5
Hamid A, Riaz H, Sana A, Ahmad SR (2016). Heavy metal contamination in vegetables, soil and water and potential health risk assessment. American-Eurasian Journal of Agricultural & Environmental Sciences 16(4):786-794.
Ikhajiagbe B, Musa SI, Okeme JO (2019). Effect of changes in soil cation exchange capacity on the reclamation of lead by Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertn. FUDMA Journal of Sciences 3(4):176-183.
Jagtap MN, Kulkarni MV, Puranik PR (2010). Flux of heavy metal in soils irrigated with urban waste water. American-Eurasian Journal of Agricultural & Environmental Sciences 8(5):487-493.
Khan A, Javid S, Muhmood A, Mjeed T, Niaz A, Majeed A (2013). Heavy metal status of soil and vegetables grown on peri-urban area of Lahore district. Plant Soil and Environment 32(1):49-54.
Khan S, Cao Q, Zheng Y, Huang Y, Zhu Y (2008). Health risk of heavy metals in contaminated soils and food crops irrigated with wastewater in Beijing, China. Environmental Pollution 152:686-692. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2007.06.056
Kumar A, Sharma I, Varshney S, Verma P (2009). Heavy metals contamination of vegetable foodstuffs in Jaipur (India). Electronic Journal of Environmental, Agricultural and Food Chemistry 8(2):96-101.
Mashiatullah RA, Qureshi M, Niaz A, Javed T, Nisar A (2005). Biological quality of ground water in Rawalpindi Islamabad. The Environmental Monitoring 5:13-18.
McCluggage D (1991). Heavy metal poisoning. NCS magazine. The bird hospital, CO, USA.
Mohallapa N, Kulkami M, Purranik P (2010). Flux of heavy metals in soils irrigated with urban wastewaters. American-Eurasian Journal of Agricultural & Environmental Sciences 8(5):487-493.
Musa SI, Ikhajiagbe B (2020). Assessment of physico chemical properties of ferruginous ultisol in Benin City, Edo State-possible impact on Plant distribution. Studia Universitatis Vasile Goldis Seria Stiintele Vietii 30(2):88-95.
Musa SI, Awayewaserere KO, Njoku KL (2019). Effects of dump site soil on the leaf structures of Luffa cylindrical (Sponge gourd) and Amaranthus viridis (Green Amaranth). Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management 23(2):307-311. https://dx.doi.org/10.4314/jasem.v23i2.17
Mushtaq N, Khan K (2010). Heavy metals contamination of soils in response to wastewater irrigation in Rawalpindi region. Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Sciences 47(3):215-224.
Najam S, Nawaz R, Ahmad S, Ehsan N, Khan MM, Nawaz MH (2015). Heavy metals contamination of soils and vegetables irrigated with municipal wastewater: A case study of Faisalabad. Pakistan Journal of Environment and Agricultural Sciences 4:6-10.
Oves M, Khan S, Qari H, Felemban N, Almeelbi A (2016). Heavy metals: biological importance and detoxification strategies. Journal of Bioremediation and Biodegradation 7(2):23-29. https://doi.org/10.4172/2155-6199.1000334
Rehman K, Ashraf S, Rashid U, Ibrahim M, Hina S, Iftikhar T, Ramzan S (2014). Comparison of proximate and heavy metal contents of vegetables grown with fresh and wastewater. Pakistan Journal of Botany 45(2):391-400.
Saini M, Sharma KC, Sharma M (2014). Study of heavy metal accumulation in spinach irrigated with industrial waste water of Bhiwadi industrial area, Rajasthan. Research Journal of Biological Sciences 2:66-72.
Sharma R, Agarwal M, Marshall F (2007). Heavy metals contamination of soil and vegetables in suburban areas of Varanasi, India. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 66:258-266. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2005.11.007
Siddique K, Ali S, Farid M, Sajid S, Aslam A, Ahmad R, … Nazir MM (2014). Different heavy metal concentrations in plants and soil irrigated with industrial / sewage waste water. International Journal of Environmental Monitoring and Analysis 2(3):151-157. https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ijema.20140203.14
Smolders E, Oorts K, Van Sprang P, Schoeters I, Janssen CR, McGrath SP, McLaughlin MJ (2009). Toxicity of trace metals in soil as affected by soil type and aging after contamination: using calibrated bioavailability models to set ecological soil standards. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry: An International Journal 28:633-1642. https://doi.org/10.1897/08-592.1
Ugya AY, Imam TS, Agamuthu P (2017). The effect of heavy metal air pollution arising from local metallurgical activities on albino rat. American Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health 1(1):10-19. htpps://doi.org/10.5455/ajpmph.280304
Ureso J, Regalado EG, Gracia I (1997). Trace elements in bivalve mollusks Ruditapes decussates and Ruditapes phillippinarum from Atlantic Coast of Southern Spain. Environment International 23(3):291-298. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0160-4120(97)00030-5
Wang C, Yang Z, Yuan X, Browne P, Chen L, Ji J (2013) The influences of soil properties on Cu and Zn availability in soil and their transfer to wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in the Yangtze River delta region, China. Geoderma 193:131-139.
WHO/FAO (2007). Joint FAO/WHO. Food Standard Programme Codex Alimentarius Commission 13th M Session. Report of the Thirty-Eight Session of the Codex Committee on Food Hygiene. Houston, United States of America, ALINORM 07/30/13.
Wilson SC, Tighe M, Paterson E, Ashley PM (2014). Food crop accumulation and bioavailability assessment for antimony (Sb) compared with arsenic (As) in contaminated soils. Environmental Science and Pollution Research 21(20):11671-11681.
How to Cite
Papers published in Notulae Scientia Biologicae are Open-Access, distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution License.
© Articles by the authors; licensee SMTCT, Cluj-Napoca, Romania. The journal allows the author(s) to hold the copyright/to retain publishing rights without restriction.
Open Access Journal - the journal offers free, immediate, and unrestricted access to peer-reviewed research and scholarly work, due SMTCT supports to increase the visibility, accessibility and reputation of the researchers, regardless of geography and their budgets. Users are allowed to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of the articles, or use them for any other lawful purpose, without asking prior permission from the publisher or the author.