Microbial assessment and proximate composition of bread samples collected from different bakeries in Ogbomoso, Oyo state, Nigeria
Bread is a staple food in Nigeria and establishment of bakeries depend on the financial capacity and processing technique employed by processors. This has led to various breads in terms of nutrition and asepsis. In this study, three types of ready-to-eat bread were purchased from different bakery retail shops in Ogbomoso, Nigeria. The control sample was prepared in Food Science Department, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology Ogbomoso. These samples were analyzed for proximate composition, bacterial and fungal contamination using standard microbial procedure (SMP) and disc diffusion method (DDM) for sensitivity test to investigate safety handling practices during production, distribution and anti-microbial effect on microbial contaminant. The results of microbial analysis are as follows: total viable count (1.1 x103 - 4.5x103) cfu/g, coliform count (0-1.9x103) cfu/g, and mold count (0.3x 105 -3.7x105) cfu/g. The percentage of organisms isolated were E. coli. 15%, B. subtilis and S. aureus 20%, P. aureginosa 10%, S. cerevisiae 15.77%, R. stolonifer 13.46%, Mucor spp. and A. niger 18.08%, and P. notatum 7.69%. The result of the proximate analysis was as follows: protein (9.13- 9.79%), crude fat (1.64-4.50%), ash (1.32-1.77%), crude fibre (0.10-0.23%), moisture content (27.22 -29.05%) and carbohydrate (55.89-59.40%). The most sensitive antimicrobial agent was gentamycin across treatment. The organisms restricted septrin, augmenting, and chloramphenicol completely. Bacillus subtilis has the highest zone of inhibition with the use of gentamycin.
Abdalla MA, Suliman SE, Bakhiet AO (2009). Food safety knowledge and practices of street food-vendors in Atbara City (Naher Elneel State Sudan). African Journal of Biotechnology 8(24):6967-6971.
Adebayo-Oyetoro AO, Ogundipe OO, Adeeko KN (2016). Quality assessment and consumer acceptability of bread from wheat and fermented banana flour. Food Science and Nutrition 4(3):364- 369. https://doi.org/10.1002/fsn3.298
Achi OK, Madubuike CN (2007). Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from retail ready-to eat foods in Nigeria. Journal of Microbiology 2:373-383. https://doi.org/10.3923/jm.2007.516.523
Afolabi OT, Aluko OO, Olaniran O, Ajao O, Ojomu BK, Olawande O (2015). Safety of bread for human consumption in an urban community in Southwest Nigeria. African Journal of Food Science 9(5):272- 277.
AOAC (2005). Official method of Analysis (18th ed). Association of Officiating Analytical Chemists, Washington DC.
Bryan FL, Michanie SC, Alvarez P, Paniagna A (1988). Critical control point of street vended foods in the Dominican Republic. Journal of Food Protection 51(5):373-383. https://doi.org/10.4315/0362-028X-51.5.373
Fawole MO, Oso BA (2004). Characterization of bacteria. Laboratory manual of microbiology. 4th edition, Spectrum book Ltd, Ibadan, pp 24- 33.
FEHD (2002). Food and Environmental Hygiene Department. Microbiological guide for ready-to-eat food. Risk assessment section, food and environmental hygiene department 43/F, Queensway, Hong Kong pp 3-4.
Feltes MMC, Arisseto-Bragotto AP, Block JM (2017). Food quality, food-borne diseases, and food safety in the Brazilian food industry. Food Quality and Safety Review 1:13-27.
ICMSF (1998). International Commission on Microbiological Specification of Foods. Microorganisms in Food. Microbiological Testing in Food Safety Management. Academic publishers New York, pp 70-80.
Isong NB, Akpan MM, Udota HI, Barber L (2013). Antimicrobial and microbial assessment of bread in Abak LGA, Nigeria, West Africa. Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 3(3):155-159.
Lateef A, Davies TA, Adelekan A, Adelere IA, Adedeji AA, Fadahunsi AH (2010a). Akara Ogbomoso: microbiological examination and identification of hazards and critical control points. Food Science and Technology International 16:386-400. https://doi.org/10.1177/1082013210366894
Musaiger AO, Al-Jedah JH, D’Souza R (2007). Nutrition profile of bakery product consumed in Bahrain, Pakistan Journal of Nutrition 6:228-233. https://doi.org/10.3923/pjn.2007.228.233
Samson RA (1981). Identification: entonopathogenic Deuteromycetes. In: Burges HD (Ed). Microbial Control of Pest and Plant Diseases 1970-1980. Academic Press, London pp 106-109.
Sausa CP (2008). The impact of food manufacturing practices on food borne diseases. Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology 51(4):615-623. https://doi.org/10.1590/S1516-89132008000400020
WHO (2002). Global Strategy for Food Safety. Geneva: WHO .
WHO (2007). Initiative to estimate the global burden of food born diseases. Geneva, pp 26- 28.
Copyright (c) 2021 Notulae Scientia Biologicae
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Distribution - Permissions - Copyright
Papers published in Notulae Scientia Biologicae are Open-Access, distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution License.
© Articles by the authors; licensee SHST, Cluj-Napoca, Romania. The journal allows the author(s) to hold the copyright/to retain publishing rights without restriction.
Open Access Journal - the journal offers free, immediate, and unrestricted access to peer-reviewed research and scholarly work, due SHST supports to increase the visibility, accessibility and reputation of the researchers, regardless of geography and their budgets. Users are allowed to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of the articles, or use them for any other lawful purpose, without asking prior permission from the publisher or the author.