Euclidean distance: integrated criteria to study sheep behaviour under heat stress


  • Jorge O. SERRANO University of Ciego de Ávila, Faculty of Agriculture, Ciego de Ávila, 69450 (CU)
  • Asiel VILLARES University of Ciego de Ávila, Faculty of Agriculture, Ciego de Ávila, 69450 (CU)
  • Francisco D. MANUEL-MALAMBA Universidad de Mandume Ya Ndemufayo, Instituto Superior Politécnico de Huíla (ISPH) (AO)
  • Jorge MARTÍNEZ-MELO University of Ciego de Ávila, Faculty of Agriculture, Ciego de Ávila, 69450 (CU)
  • Carlos MAZORRA University of Ciego de Ávila, Faculty of Agriculture, Ciego de Ávila, 69450 (CU)
  • Angela BORROTO University of Ciego de Ávila, Faculty of Agriculture, Ciego de Ávila, 69450 (CU)
  • Elliosha HAJARI Agricultural Research Council-Tropical and Subtropical Crops, Plant Improvement, Private Bag X11208, Nelspruit, 1200 (ZA)
  • Norge FONSECA-FUENTES Universidad de Granma (UDG), Centro de Estudio de Producción Animal (CEPA), Carretera de Manzanillo km 17 ½ CP: 85100, Granma (CU)
  • Jose C. LORENZO University of Ciego de Avila, Laboratory for Plant Breeding and Conservation of Genetic Resources, Bioplant Center, Ciego de Ávila, 69450, (CU)



animal physiological stress; biostatistics; climate change; heat stress; Ovis aries


Livestock farming with sheep represents an important income stream. With climate change, domestic sheep are being exposed to heat stress which can have adverse effects on growth. Here, data regarding sheep behaviour in response to high temperature stress was analysed using the Euclidean distance method to integrate all variables into a single representative outcome that could summarize sheep behaviour. We studied the effects of two shepherding conditions either with or without the provision of shade. The number of animals eating grass, ruminating and resting either in the shade or directly in the sun were recorded over one year at two-week intervals. As the ideal behaviour (expert’s criteria), the following conditions were considered: maximum numbers of animals eating grass, ruminating and resting under shaded conditions were desirable; while the numbers of animals ruminating or resting under direct sunlight should be at a minimum. The statistical evaluation undertaken integrated these variables to identify the most significant effects of heat stress. Sheep spent most of the daylight hours engaged in eating and this activity was more intensive where shaded conditions were available. The Euclidean distance calculated for the group of animals maintained under shaded conditions was statistically lower (indicating better behaviour). Based on this, it is possible to accurately rank the treatments in terms of severity. The analysis indicates that the use of the Euclidean distance could be used to summarize a simplified outcome for observational data collected in behavioural studies in response to differing climatic conditions.


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How to Cite

SERRANO, J. O. ., VILLARES, A., MANUEL-MALAMBA, F. D., MARTÍNEZ-MELO, J., MAZORRA, C., BORROTO, A., HAJARI, E., FONSECA-FUENTES, N., & LORENZO, J. C. (2021). Euclidean distance: integrated criteria to study sheep behaviour under heat stress. Notulae Scientia Biologicae, 13(1), 10859.



Research articles
DOI: 10.15835/nsb13110859