Venation studies of some species in the genus Ficus Linn. in Southwestern Nigeria


  • Adebisi A. AKINLABI Obafemi Awolowo University, Department of Botany, Ile – Ife, Osun State (NG)
  • Olaniran T. OLADIPO Obafemi Awolowo University, Department of Botany, Ile – Ife, Osun State (NG)



areole, cystolith cells, leaf, shape, venation


The present study investigates the venation of ten species of the genus Ficus collected from Obafemi Awolowo University Ile-Ife (latitude 7° 31' 14.7612'' N and longitude 4° 31' 49.1340'' E) and the NACGRAB, Ibadan, Nigeria (latitude 7°23¢4²N and longitude 3°50¢31²E). The leaf venations of the species were carried out using standard methods. All photomicrographs of the features were taken with the aid of Amscope digital camera mounted on a celesterone binocular microscope. All data were subjected of analysis of variance using SAS software. The result revealed the Leaf venation pattern based on areole shape, length and width, veinlets ending and trichomes. The leaf venation patterns of the species show that they are significant in identifying and delimiting studied species within the genus with respect to qualitative and quantitative data. Species specific variation were recorded for the venation patterns as areole shape, length and width, veinlets ending and trichomes and these features are either genetically fixed or as a result of environmental extremes. Presence of cystolith cells, trichomes and no veinlets ending is diagnostic of Ficus mucuso. The study concluded that venation patterns are therefore significant in delimitation of species in the genus Ficus and these characters can be employed as additional information in the existing taxonomical keys of the genus.


Metrics Loading ...


Abubakar BY, Yunusa AI (1998) Epidermal struc¬ture and stomata ontology as an aid to taxo¬nomic identification of some species of Acasia (Legominose-Mimosoideae). Nigerian Jour¬nal of Botany 11:117-123.

Adedeji, O, Ajuwon OY and Babawale OO (2007). Foliar epidermal studies, organographic distribution and taxonomic importance of trichomes in the family Solanaceae. International Journal of Botany 3(3):276-282.

Ahmad K, Khan M, Ahmad M, Shaheen N, Abdul Nazir A (2010). Taxonomic diversity in epider¬mal cells of some sub-tropical plant species. International Journal of Agriculture and Biology 12:115-118.

Bercu R, Popoviciu DR (2014). Anatomical study of Ficus carica Linn leaf. Annals of Romanian Society of Cell Biology 19(1):33-36.

Berg CC (1989). Systematics and phylogeny of the urticales in evolution. In: Crane PR, Blackmore S (Eds). Systematics and Fossil History of the Hamamelidae. Clarendon Press, Oxford pp 193-220.

Burkill HM (1998). The useful plants of West Tropical Africa 2. Volume 4. Families M.R Kew: Royal Botanical Garden, Kew.

Chaudhary LB, Sudhakar JV, Kumar A, Bajpai O, Tiwari R, Murthy GVS (2012). Synopsis of the genus Ficus Linn. (Moraceae) in India. Taiwania 57:193-216.

Clement WL, Weiblen GD (2009). Morphological evolution in the mulberry family (Moraceae). Systematic Botany 34(3):530-552.

Dede RA (1962). Foliar venation patterns in the Rutaceae. American Journal of Botany 49(5):490-497.

Forbes PL (1980). A revision of Fuirena Rottb. (Cyperaceae) in Southern Africa. Ph.D. dissertation, Univ. Witwatersrand, Johannesburg.

Frodin DG (2004). History and concepts of big plant genera. Taxon International Journal of Plant Taxonomy 53:753-776.

Hickey LJ (1973). Classification of the architecture of dicotyledonous leaves. American Journal of Botany 60:17-33.

Hutchinson J, Dalziel MD (1954 - 1972). Floral of West Tropical Africa. Volumes 3, Crown Agents, London.

Inamdar JA, Shenoy KN, Rao NV (1983). Leaf architecture of some monocotyledons with reticulate venation. Annals of Botany 52(5):725-735.

Keay RWJ (1989). Trees of Nigeria. Oxford science Publications. Clarendon Press, Oxford, pp 476.

Klimko M, Truchan M (2006). Morphological variability of the leaf epidermis in selected taxa of the genus Ficus. L. (Moraceaea) and its taxonomic implications. Acta Societatis Botanicorum Poloniae 75(4):309-324.

Mauseth JD (1988). Plant anatomy. California: The Benjamin Cummings Publication Company Inc., pp 32-34.

Mawa S, Husain K, Jantan I (2013). Ficus carica L. (Moraceae): phytochemistry, traditional uses and biological activities. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 1:8

Metcalfe CR, Chalk L (1950). Anatomy of the dicotyledons. Volume 2. Clarendon Press, Oxford, UK pp 1259-1271.

Olorode O (1984). Taxonomy of West African flowering plant. Longman Publishing Company, New York, pp 25-32.

Ogundipe OT, Wujek DE (2004). Foliar anatomy on twelve genera of Bignoniaceae (Lamiales). Acta Botanica Hungarica 46(3-4):337-361.

Odedeji ET, Adedeji O (2015). Comparative Foliar epidermal studies of twelve species in the family Cyperaceae. Journal of Advanced Laboratory Research in Biology 6(4):111-123.

Ogunkunle ATJ, Oladele FA (2000) Diagnostic value of trichomes in some Nigerian species of Oci¬mum. Hyptis Jazq. and Tinnea Kostschy and Peys (Lamiaceae). Journal of Applied Sciences 3:1163-1180.

Olatunji OA (1983). Practical manual for plant anatomy. A Laboratory Practical Manual, Department of Botany, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile - Ife, Nigeria (Manuscript).

Rahman AHM, Khanom A (2013). Taxonomic and ethno-medicinal study of species from Moraceae (Mulberry) family in Bangladesh flora. Research in Plant Sciences 1(3):53-57.

Raju SV, Rao PN (2008). Variation in the structure and development of foliar stomata in the Euphorbiaceae. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 75:69-97.

Ramayya N, Rao SRS (1976). Morphology, phylesis and biology of the peltate scale, stellate and tufted hairs in some Malvaceae. Journal of the Indian Botanical Society 55:75-79.

Rao SRS, Ramayya N (1977). Structure distribution and taxonomic importance of trichomes in the Indian species of Malvastrum. Phytomorphology 27:40-44.

Rao PN, Raju VS (1985) Foliar trichomes in the family Euphorbiaceae. In: Trends in Plant Research. Prof. YS Murthy Commemorative Volume. Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh, Dehra Dun, India, pp 128-136.

Stace CA (1984). The taxonomic importance of the leaf surface. In: Heywood VH and Moore DM (Eds). Current Concepts in Plant Taxonomy. Academic Press, London.

Stant MY (1973). Scanning electron microscopy of silica bodies and other epidermal features in Gibasis (Tradescantia) leaf. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 66:233-243.

Sehgal L, Paliwal GS (2008). Studies on the leaf anatomy of Euphorbia: II Venation patterns. Botanical Journal of Linnean Society 68(3):173-208.

Scott T (1996). Concise encyclopedia biology. Walter de Gruyter, New York pp 77.

Sharma OP (1993). Plant taxonomy. Tata McGraw – Hill publishing company Limited. New Delhi pp 482.

Siti-Khaulah AR, Noraini T (2016). Leaf venations in some Ficus L. (Moraceae) species. In: 2016 UKM FST Postgraduate Colloquium: Proceedings of the University Kebangsaan Malaysia, Faculty of Science and Technology 2016 Postgraduate Colloquium pp 1784.

SAS Institute (2003). SAS Procedure guides, Version 9.1 Cary, SAS Institute.

Talebi MS, Noori M, Naniz AH (2017). A study of epidermal leaf anatomy of 18 Euphorbia taxa from Kerman Province, Iran. Biologija 63(2):126-133.

Teleb SS, Salah-El-din RM (2014). Pollen morphology of some species of genus Ficus L. (Moraceae) from Egypt. Egypt Journal of Botany 54(1):87-102.

Ummu HB, Noraini T, Abdul LM, Affina EAA, Amirul AJ (2014). Studies on leaf venation in selected taxa of the genus Ficus L. (Moraceae) in Peninsular Malaysia. Tropical Life Sciences Research 25(2):111-125.




How to Cite

AKINLABI, A. A. ., & OLADIPO, O. T. (2021). Venation studies of some species in the genus Ficus Linn. in Southwestern Nigeria. Notulae Scientia Biologicae, 13(2), 10760.



Research articles
DOI: 10.15835/nsb13210760

Most read articles by the same author(s)