Haemato-biochemical alterations and acute toxicity study of hydro-methanol root extract of Anacardium occidentale in cockerels
Keywords:Anacardium occidentale, chickens, haematology, roott extract, serum biochemistry
The study evaluated the haemato-biochemical alterations and acute toxicity of hydro-methanol root extract of Anarcaduim occidentale (AO) in cockerels. Forty chickens randomly assigned into four groups (A, B, C and D) of 10 birds each were used for the experiment. Groups A, B, C and D received 3000, 1500 and 500 mg/kg body weight of the extract and distilled water respectively. Relative weights, haematology, serum biochemistry, gross and histopathological features of the lymphoid organs of chickens were studied. No significant (P>0.05) variation was observed in their body weights. The white blood cell count of group A chicken were significantly (P<0.05) lower than that of groups B and C chickens. Serum biochemistry tests revealed significant (P<0.05) variations at different doses for the alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, serum total protein, albumin, cholesterol, triacylglycerol, uric acid, creatinine, calcium and phosphorus activities when compared to the control group. Gross and histopathological examinations showed no overt alterations in the tissues examined. It was observed that varied doses of root extract of Anarcaduim occidentale caused significant decrease in haematology and serum biochemistry parameters of chickens and no obvious lesions in internal organs.
Afolabi KD, Akinsoyinu AO, Olajide R, Akinleye SB (2010). Haematological parameters of the Nigerian local grower chickens fed varying dietary levels of palm kernel cake. In: Proceedings of 35th Annual Conference of Nigerian Society for Animal Production, pp 247.
Agedah CE, Bawo DDS, Nyananyo BL (2010). Identification of antimicrobial properties of cashew, Anacardium occidentale L (Family Anacardiacaea). International Journal of Applied Management Sciences 14(3):25-27. https://doi.org/10.4314/jasem.v14i3.61455
Allain CC, Poon LS, Chan CS, Richmond W, Fu PC (1974). Enzymatic determination of total cholesterol. Clinical Chemistry 20:470-475.
Armar-Klemesu M, Maxwell D (1999). Accra: urban agriculture as an asset strategy. In: Baker N, Dubbeling M, Gundel U, Koschella S, de Zeeuw H (Eds). Supplementary Income and Diets. Growing Cities, Growing Food, Havana, Cuba pp 234-236.
Arekemase MO, Oyeyiola GP, Aliyu MB (2011). Antibacterial activity of Anacardium occidentale on enterotoxin producing bacteria. International Journal Biology 3(4):392-399. https://doi.org/10.5539/ijb.v3n4p92
Aroche R, Martinez Y, Ruan Z, Guan G, Waititu S, Nyachoti CM, Mas D, Lan S (2018). Dietary inclusion of a mixed powder of medicinal plant leaves enhances feed efficiency and immune function in broiler chickens. Journal of Chemistry. https://doi.org/10.1155//4073068
Benjamin MM (1981). Outline of veterinary clinical pathology. 3rd Ed. Iowa State University Press, Ames, Iowa, USA.
Blass KG, Theibert RJ, Lam LK (1974). A study of the mechanism of the Jaffe reaction. Journal of Clinical Biochemistry 12:336-343. https://doi.org/10.1515/cclm.1922.214.171.1246
Campbell TW (2012). Haematology of birds. In: Thrall MA, Weiser G, Allison R (Eds). Veterinary Haematology and Clinical Chemistry. 2nd Ed. Wiley Ames, Iowa pp 238-276.
Coles EH (1986). Veterinary clinical pathology. 4th Ed. WB Saunders Philadelphia.
Doumas BT, Biggs HG (1972). Simple method of albumin determination. Clinical Chemistry 7:175.
Drury RAB, Wellington EA (1976). Preparation of tissues for microtomy. In: Carleton’s Histological Technique. 4th Ed. New York and Toronto, Oxford University Press New York and Toronto, pp 33-114.
Fawcett JK, Scott JE (1960). A rapid and precise method for the determination of urea. Journal of Clinical Pathology 13:156-59. https://doi.org/10.1136/jcp.13.2.156
Goodwin JF (1970). Quantification of serum inorganic phosphorus, phosphatase and urinary phosphate without preliminary treatment. Clinical Chemistry 16(9):776-780.
Harr KE (2009). Diagnostic value of biochemistry. In: Harrison GJ, Lightfoot TL (Eds). Clinical Avian Medicine. IVS Ithaca New York.
Higgins TE, Beutler E, Doumas BT (2008). Measurement of haemoglobin in blood. In: Burtis CA, AshwoodER. Bruns DE (Eds). Tietz Fundamentals of Clinical Chemistry. 6th Ed. Saunders Elsevier Missouri, pp 514-515.
Ifesan BOT, Fashakin JF, Ebosele F, Oyerinde SA (2013). Antioxidants and antimicrobial properties of selected plant leaves. European Journal of Medicinal Plant 3(3):465-473. https://doi.org/10.9734/EJMP/2013/3383
Igwe AO, Eze DC, Nwakudu ON (2017). Haematological changes in Isa-brown laying chickens (Gallus gallusdomesticus) experimentally infected with velogenic Newcastle disease virus. Sokoto Journal of Veterinary Science 15(1):27-35.
Igwe AO, Ihedioha JI, Okoye JOA (2018). Changes in serum calcium and phosphorus levels and their relationship to egg production in laying hens infected with velogenic Newcastle disease virus. Journal of Applied Animal Research 46(1):523-528. https://doi.org/10.1080/09712119.2017.1352506
Isaac LJ, Abah G, Akpan B, Ekaette IU (2013). Haematological properties of different breeds and sexes of rabbits. Proceedings of the 18th Annual Conference of Animal Science Association of Nigeria, pp 24-27.
Jassim SA, Naji MA (2003). Novel antiviral agents: a medicinal plant perspective. Journal of Applied Microbiology 95:412-427. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2672.2003.02026.x
Kessler GM, Wolfman (1964). O- cresolphthalein direct method for in vivo determination of calcium in serum, plasma and urine. Clinical Chemistry 10:686-704.
Kohn RA, Allen MS (1995). Enrichment of proteolytic activity relative to nitrogen in preparation from the rumen for in vitro studies. Animal Feed Science and Technology 52(1-2):1-14. https://doi.org/10.1016/0377-8401(94)00711-H
Etim NN, Williams ME, Akpabio U, Offiong EE (2014). Haematological parameters and factors affecting their values. Agricultural Science 2(1):37-47. https://doi.org/10.12735/as.v2i1p37
Nwozo SO, Afolabi AB, Oyinloye BE (2016). Antioxidant, lipid modulating and hypoglycaemic effects of aqueous extract of Anacardium occidentale leaves instreptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Journal of Molecular Pathophysiology 5(4):59-65. https://doi.org/10.5455/jmp.20160904104639
OECD (2001). Guideline for testing of chemicals. Acute toxicities up and down procedures 425:1–26. www.oecd.org./dataoced/17/51/1948378.pdf
Omeke JN, Anaga AO, Okoye JOA (2018a). Brine shrimp lethality and acute toxicity tests of different hydro methanol extracts of Anacardium occidentale using in vitro and in vivo models: a preliminary study. Comparative Clinical Pathology 27(6):1717-1721. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00580-018-2798-y
Omeke JN, Ezema WS, Eze DC, Okoye JOA (2018b). Lose dose velogenic viscerotropic Newcastle disease virus infection caused 30% mortality in broiler but none in Lohmann Brown layer chickens. Journal of Applied Animal Research 46(1):1352-1357. https://doi.org/10.1080/09712119.2018.1505620
Omojasola PF, Awe S (2004). The antibacterial activity of the leaf extract Anacardium occidentale and Gossypium hirsutum against some selected microorganisms. Bioscience Research and Communication 60(1):25-58.
Ozer J, Ratweb M, Shawe M, Vanhaelea-Fastre R, Declercq JP, Van Meerssche M (2008). The current state of serum biomarker of hepatotoxicity. Toxicity 245:194-205. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tox.2007.11.021
Pastore SM, Gomes PC, Rostagno HS, Albino LFT, Calderano AA, Vellasco CR, da Silva Viana G, de Almeida RL (2012). Calcium levels and calcium: available phosphorus ratios in diets for white egg layers from 42 to 58 weeks of age. Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia 41:2424-2432.
Ramaiah SK (2011). Preclinical safety assessment: current gaps, challenges and approaches in identifying translatable biomarkers of drug induced liver damage. Clinics in Laboratory Medicine 31:161-172. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cll.2010.10.004
Saulawa LA, Ukachukwu SU, Onwudike OC, Garba MG, Aruwayo A (2012). Effect of quantitative replacement of baobab (Adansonia digitata) seed meal for soya beans mealin broiler finisher diet. ASAN-NIAS Joint Annual Conference, Abuja, Nigeria, pp 525-528.
Schalm OW, Jain NC, Carroll EJ (1975). Veterinary hematology. 3rd Ed. Lea and Febiger, Philadelphia.
Shafe MO, Omolaso BO, Igbokwe VU, Sopuru M, Dare BJ, Olaniyan OT (2014). Anacardium occidentale leaves extract regulate cholesterol and demonstrate anti-diabetic effects on wester rats (Rattus norvegicus). Standard Journal of Plant Sciences 2(3):44-50.
Sirois M (2015). Laboratory procedures for veterinary technicians. 6th Ed. Mosby Inc.
Stockham SL, Scott MA (2008). Fundamentals of veterinary clinical pathology. 2nd Ed. Blackwell Publishing Ames Iowa USA.
Thrall MA, Weiser MG (2002). Haematology. In: Hendrix CM (Ed). Laboratory Procedures for Veterinary Technicians. 4th Ed. Mosby Incorporated Missouri, pp 29-74.
How to Cite
Papers published in Notulae Scientia Biologicae are Open-Access, distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution License.
© Articles by the authors; licensee SMTCT, Cluj-Napoca, Romania. The journal allows the author(s) to hold the copyright/to retain publishing rights without restriction.
Open Access Journal - the journal offers free, immediate, and unrestricted access to peer-reviewed research and scholarly work, due SMTCT supports to increase the visibility, accessibility and reputation of the researchers, regardless of geography and their budgets. Users are allowed to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of the articles, or use them for any other lawful purpose, without asking prior permission from the publisher or the author.