The Effects of Using Synthetic and Natural Color Foods on Lipid Profile and Liver Function in Rats
Today synthetic food dyes are being used most commonly as food colorant in confectionaries for children. Present study was designed to evaluate effect of tartrazine and chocolate brown as a synthetic color and turmeric, cocoa as a natural color on Swiss albino mice. The rats have been fed on color biscuits and after the acclimation period, rats were divided into 7 groups (5 rats each one). Rats treated with dose level 7.5 mg/kg /day (ADI) in tartrazine and turmeric and 0.15 mg/kg /day (ADI) in chocolate brown and cocoa. The study revealed a highly noticeable decrease in the body weight gain, food intake and feed efficiency in synthetic color of mice compared to the control group, the mixture improvement this effects and non-significant with natural color. A significant increase in the average weight of the major organs liver, spleen, heart, pancreas and kidney of the mice has been increased significantly in synthetic color treated groups with tartrazine and chocolate brown. Total cholesterol level, T-lipid, LDL and vLDL were no significant change in all mice administration color foods, but significant increase in T.G with tartrazine and chocolate brown and has significant decrease in HDL-C with tartrazine and chocolate brown. There was a significant increase in the level of ALT, AST and ALP with tartrazine and chocolate brown while compared to control group. The mixture synthetic and natural color improved the results. Bilirubin levels were significantly increased with tartrazine and chocolate brown.
Abdel-Rahim EA, Ahmed EA, El-Desoky GE, Ramadan ME (1987). Biochemical role of some natural and synthetic colorants on liver function of rats. Mania Journal of Agriculture Research 9(3):11-17.
Abu El-Zahab HS, El-Khayal ZA, Awadallah R, Mahdy KA (1997). Physiological effects of some synthetic food coloring additives on rats. Bollettino Chimico Farmaceutico 136(10):615-627.
Allain CC, Poon LS, Chan CS, Richmoud W, Fu PC (1974). Enzymatic determination of total serum cholesterol. Clinical Chemistry 20(4):470-475.
Arefin S, Mohammad SH, Shamme AN, Mamun MD, Rashid M, Saddam H (2017). Tartrazine induced changes in physiological and biochemical parameters in Swiss albino mice. Marmara Pharmaceutical Journal 21(3):564-569.
Ashida H, Hashimoto T, Tsuji S, Kanazawa K, Danno G (2000). Synergistic effects of food colors on the toxicity of 3-amino-1,4-dimethyl-5H-pyrido[4,3-b]indole (Trp-P-1) inprimary cultured rat hepatocytes. Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology 46(3):130-136.
Barrett A, Cooper A, Crumpler D, Dalen L, Grimshaw K, Kitchin E, Stevenson J (2007). Food additives and hyperactive behaviour in 3-year old and 8/9-year-old children in the community: a randomised, double-blinded, placebo controlled trial. The Lancet 370(9598):1560-1567.
Belfield A, Golgberg D (1971). Colorimetric determination of alkaline phosphatase activity. Enzyme 12:561-566.
Burstein M (1970). A fully enzymatic colorimetric determination of HDL cholesterol in the serum. Lipid Research 11:583-595.
EL-Desoky GE, Abdel-Ghaffar A, AL-Othman ZA, Habila1 MA, AL-Sheikh YA, Ghneim HK, ... Aboul-Soud MAM (2017). Curcumin protects against tartrazine-mediated oxidative stress and hepatotoxicity in male rats. European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences 21:635-745.
Fossati P, Prencipe L (1982). Serum triglycerides determined colorimetrically with an enzyme that produces hydrogen peroxide. Clinical Chemistry 28(10):2077-2080.
Gao Y, Li C, Shen J, Yin H, An X, Jin H (2011). Effect of food azo dye tartrazine on learning and memory functions in mice and rats, and the possible mechanisms involved. Journal of Food Science 76:T125-129.
Hashem MM, Atta AH, Arbid MS, Nada SA, Asaad GF (2010). Immunological studies on Amaranth, Sunset Yellow and Curcumin as food coloring agents in albino rats. Food and Chemical Toxicology 48(6):1581-1586.
Hassan GM (2010). Effects of some synthetic coloring additives on DNA damage and chromosomal aberrations of rats. Arabian Journal of Biotechnology 13(1):13-24.
Himiri I, Bellahcen S, Souna F, Belmekki F, Aziz M, Bnouham M, ... Saaluri E (2011). A 90-day oral toxicity study of tartrazine, a synthetic food dye, in Wister rats. International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences 3(2):159-169.
Haward CV (2005). Combining aspartame and quinoline yellow (MSG) and brilliant blue harms nerve cells eminent. Nano Toxicol 1: 30.
Hayes AW (1994). Principles and methods of toxicology. Third Ed., Raven Press Ltd., pp 687.
Knight JA, Anderson S, Rawle JM (1972). Chemical basis of sulfo- phosphor-vanillin reaction for estimation total serum lipid. Clinical Chemistry 18(6):1091-1101.
Levy AL (1981). A fully enzymatic colorimetric determination of HDL cholesterol in the serum. Clinical Chemistry 27(5):653-662.
Lung A (1980). Encyclopedia of common natural ingredients used in food, drugs, and cosmetics. John Wiley, New York pp 313-314.
Neshe SA, Arefin S, Hussain MS, Das A, Karmakar P, Hossain MS (2016). Safety evaluation of chocolate brown dye in Swiss albino mice. International Journal of Nutritional Disorders and Therapy 6(195):2161-0509.
Reitman S, Frankel S (1957). A colorimetric method for the determination of serum glutamic oxaloacetic and glutamic pyruvic transaminases. American Journal of Clinical Pathology 28(56):56-62.
Soltan SS, Shehata MM (2012). The effects of using color foods of children on immunity properties and liver, kidney on rats. Food and Nutrition Sciences 3:897-904.
Stefanidou M, Alevisopoulos G, Chatziioannou A, Koutselinis A (2003). Assessing food additive toxicity using a cell model. Veterinary and Human Toxicology 45(2):103-105.
Walter M, Gerarde H (1970). Ultramicro method for the determination of conjugated and total bilirubin in serum or plasma. Microchemical Journal 15(2):231-236.
Copyright (c) 2019 Notulae Scientia Biologicae
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Distribution - Permissions - Copyright
Papers published in Notulae Scientia Biologicae are Open-Access, distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution License.
© Articles by the authors; licensee SHST, Cluj-Napoca, Romania. The journal allows the author(s) to hold the copyright/to retain publishing rights without restriction.
Open Access Journal - the journal offers free, immediate, and unrestricted access to peer-reviewed research and scholarly work, due SHST supports to increase the visibility, accessibility and reputation of the researchers, regardless of geography and their budgets. Users are allowed to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of the articles, or use them for any other lawful purpose, without asking prior permission from the publisher or the author.