Occurrence of Salmonella in Raw Chicken Meat from Retail Equipment and Environments in Southern Nigeria Open Markets

  • Gideon I. OGU Novena University, Department of Biological Sciences, P.M.B. 002, Ogume, Delta State http://orcid.org/0000-0002-4594-8386
  • Faith I. AKINNIBOSUN University of Benin, Department of Microbiology, P.M.B. 1154, Benin City, Edo State
Keywords: enterobacteriaceae; open market; prevalence; poultry; Salmonella


Salmonella species is one of the most significant food-related pathogens of public health concern, whose leading vehicles of transmission to humans are chicken products. Hence, this study investigated the occurrence of Salmonella in chicken meat in correlation to their retailing equipment/environments of open markets located in Warri, Benin City, Akure and Ado-Ekiti metropolis (Southern Nigeria).  A total of 680 samples comprising raw chicken carcass (n = 240 muscle tissues), rinsing water (n = 60), hovering houseflies (n = 200) and swabs from retailing table (n = 60), cutting knives (n = 60) and meat storage containers (n = 60) were collected and analysed using standard techniques. Salmonella was recovered in 105 samples, presenting a prevalence rate of 15.4% (105/680). Rinsing water (40.0%) had the highest rate, followed by chicken carcass and retailing table (16.7%), storage containers (18.3%), hovering flies (9.0%), and then cutting knives (3.3%). The prevalence of Salmonella was highest in Benin City samples (24.7%; P<0.05), followed by Warri samples (15.9%), Ado-Ekiti (11.9%) and Akure (9.4%) being the least. The mean Salmonella counts (CFU/mL) per sample revealed that Benin City (0.09 × 102 - 5.49 × 106) yielded the highest Salmonella load, followed by Warri (0.00 - 6.11 × 105), Ado-Ekiti (0.00 - 5.49 × 104) and Akure (0.00 - 3.02 × 104). These findings suggest that the occurrence of Salmonella in commercial chicken meat is still high in most of the study locations and the rinsing water, tables and storage containers could be potential transmission routes. Adequate thermal treatment measures are recommended before consummation of commercial chicken meat within the regions.


Metrics Loading ...


Adesiyun A, Webb L, Musai L, Louison B, Joseph G, Johnson A, … Rodrigo S (2014). Survey of Salmonella contamination in chicken layer farms in three Caribbean countries. Journal of Food Protection 77(9):1471-1480.

Agada GA, Abdullahi IO, Aminu M, Odugbo M, Chollom SC, Okeke LA, Okwori AEJ (2014a). Prevalence and risk factors associated with Salmonella species contamination of commercial poultry farms in Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria. World Journal of Biology and Biological Science 2(3):49-61.

Agada GO, Abdullahi IO, Aminu M, Odugbo M, Chollom SC, Kumbish PR, Okwori AEJ (2014b). Prevalence and antibiotic resistance profile of Salmonella isolates from commercial poultry and poultry farm-handlers in Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria. British Microbiology Research Journal 4(4):462-479.

Agbaje M, Davies R, Oyekunle MA, Ojo OE, Fasina FO, Akinduti PA (2010). Observation on the occurrence and transmission pattern of Salmonella gallinarum in commercial poultry farms in Ogun State, South Western Nigeria. African Journal Microbiological Research (9):796-800.

Akeem AO, Mamman PO, Raji A, Kwanashie CN, Raufu IA, Aremu A (2017). Distribution of virulence genes in Salmonella serovars isolated from poultry farm in Kwara State, Nigeria. Ceylon Journal of Science 46(4):69-76.

American Public Health Association (1992). Compendium of methods for the microbial examination of foods. 3rd rev. ed. Vanderzant C, Stoesser Splitt DF, Washington DC, USA pp 423-431.

Babatunde SK, Kolawole DO, Adedayo M, Ajiboye AE, Ajao AT, Mustapha ON (2017). Prevalence and characterization of Salmonella isolates from poultry farms in Ilorin, Nigeria. Journal of Life Sciences Research 4(1):1-4.

Balakrishnan S, Sangeetha A, Dhanalakshmi M (2018). Prevalence of Salmonella in chicken meat and its slaughtering place from local markets in Orathanadu, Thanjavur district, Tamil Nadu. Journal of Entomology and Zoology Studies 6(2):2468-247.

Barbour EK, Ayyash DB, Alturkistni W, Alyahiby A, Yaghmoor S, Iyer A, … Harakeh S (2015). Impact of sporadic reporting of poultry Salmonella serovars from selected developing countries. Journal of Infection Diseases of Developing Countries 9(1):1-7.

Bashir M (2017). Isolation and molecular detection of antibiotic resistant Salmonella species from some poultry farms in southern part of Katsina State, Nigeria. A Dissertation submitted to the School of Postgraduate Studies, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria. Partial Fulfilment of the Requirement for the Award of a Master of Science Degree in Microbiology Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Life Sciences, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria pp 38.

Brown MH (2000). Processed meat products. In: The microbiological safety and quality of food. Aspen Publishers, Gaithersburg, pp 389-419.

CDC (2016). CDC (Center for Disease Control) - Health information for Travel 2016. New York: Oxford University Press pp1-688.

Choo LC, Saleha AA, Wai SS, Fauziah N (2011). Isolation of Campylobacter and Salmonella from houseflies (Musca domestica) in a university campus and a poultry farm in Selangor, Malaysia. Tropical Biomedicine 28(1):16-20.

Dawoud TM, Hererra P, Hanning I, Kwon YM, Ricke SC (2011). In vitro invasion of laying hen ovarian follicles by Salmonella Enteritidis strains. Poultry Science 90(5):1134-1137.

Eng S-K, Pusparajah P, Mutalib N-S, Ser H-L, Chan K-G, Lee L-H (2015). Salmonella: A review on pathogenesis, epidemiology antibiotic resistance. Frontiers in Life Science 8(3):284-293.

Faleke OO, Jolayemi KO, Igoh YO, Jibri AH, Ayedun JO (2017). Salmonella species on meat contact surfaces and processing water in Sokoto main market and abattoir Nigeria. Macedonian Veterinary Review 40(1):59-65.

Garba MK, Olonitola OS, Yakubu SE, Abdullahi IO (2017). Antimicrobial susceptibility and occurrence of resistance genes among Salmonella arizonae isolated from chicken meat samples in Sokoto Metropolis Sokoto State, Nigeria. UMYU Journal of Microbiology Research 2(2):71-76.

Gayawan E, Arogundade ED, Adebayo SB (2014). Possible determinants and spatial patterns of anaemia among young children in Nigeria: a Bayesian semi-parametric modelling. International Health 6:35-45.

Gonçalves-Tenório A, Silva BN, RodriguesV, Cadavez V, Gonzales-Barron U (2018). Prevalence of pathogens in poultry meat: A meta-analysis of European published surveys. Foods 7:69.

Gould LH, Walsh KA, Vieira AR, Herman K, Williams IT, Hall AJ, Cole D (2013). Surveillance for foodborne disease outbreaks -United States, 1998-2008. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Reports 62(02):1-34.

Ifeanyichukwu I, Chika E, Ogonna O, Chidinma I, Monique A, Ikechukwu M, … Agabus N (2016). Prevalence and antibiogram of Salmonella species isolated from poultry products in Ebonyi State, Nigeria. Journal of Advanced Veterinary and Animal Research 3(4):353-359.

Kagambèga A, Lienemann T, Aulu L, Traoré AS, Barro N, Siitonen A (2013). Prevalence and characterization of Salmonella enterica from the feces of cattle, poultry, swine and hedgehogs in Burkina Faso and their comparison to human Salmonella isolates. BMC Microbiology 13:253.

Kaushik P, Anjay KS, Bharti SK, Dayal S (2014). Isolation and prevalence of Salmonella from chicken meat and cattle milk collected from local markets of Patna, India. Veterinary World 7(2):62-65.

Khan AS, Georges K, Rahaman S, Abdela W, Adesiyun AA (2018). Prevalence and serotypes of Salmonella spp. on chickens sold at retail outlets in Trinidad. PLoS One 13(8):e0202108.

Mpundu P, Mbewe AR, Muma JB, Zgambo J, Munyeme M (2019). Evaluation of bacterial contamination in dressed chickens in Lusaka Abattoirs. Frontiers in Public Health 7:19.

Nidaullah H, Abirami N, Shamila-Syuhada AK, Chuah LO, Nuru H, Tan TP, … Rusu G (2017). Prevalence of Salmonella in poultry processing environments in wet markets in Penang and Perlis, Malaysia. Veterinary World 10(3):286-292.

Ogu GI, Madar IM, Igborgbor JC, Okolo JC (2017). Mycological quality of fresh and frozen chicken meat retailed within Warri Metropolis, Delta State, Nigeria. Jordan Journal of Biological Science 10(4):303-308.

Olsen AR, Hammack TS (2000). Isolation of Salmonella spp. from the housefly, Musca domestica L., and the dump fly, Hydrotaea aenescens (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Mucidae) at caged-layer houses. Journal of Food Protection 63(7):958-60.

Omorodion NJP, Odu NN (2016). Incidence of Salmonella species in commercially processed chicken meat sold in River State, Nigeria. Researcher 8(4):59-64.

Patrick ME, Adcock PM, Gomez TM, Altekruse SE, Holland BH, Tauxe RV, Swendlow DL (2004). Salmonella enteritidis infections, United States, 1985-1999. Emerging Infectious Diseases 10(1):1-7.

Popoff MY, Bockemühl J, Gheesling LL (2003). Supplement 2001 (no. 45) to the Kauffmann–White scheme. Research in Microbiology 154:173-174.

Rodriguez JM, Rondón I, Verjan N (2015). Serotypes of Salmonella in broiler carcasses marketed at Ibague, Colombia. Brazilian Journal of Poultry Science 17(4):545-552.

Sofos JN (2014). Meat and meat products. In: Food Safety Management. Elsevier Inc., Oxford pp 119-162.

Stoica M, Stoean S, Alexe P (2014). Overview of biological hazards associated with the consumption of the meat products. Journal of Agro-alimentary Processes and Technologies 20(2):192-197.

Ta YT, Nguyen TT, To PB, Pham DX, Le HTH, Alali WQ, … Doyle MP (2012). Prevalence of Salmonella on chicken carcasses from retail markets in Vietnam. Journal of Food Protection 75(10):1851-1854.

Tarabees R, Elsayed MSA, Shawish R, Basiouni S, Shehata AA (2017). Isolation and characterization of Salmonella enteritidis and Salmonella typhimurium from chicken meat in Egypt. Journal of Infection in Developing Countries 11(4):314-319.

Ugbogu OC, Nwachukwu NC, Ogbuagu UN (2006). Isolation of Salmonella and Shigella species from house flies (Musca domestica L.) in Uturu, Nigeria. African Journal of Biotechnology 5(11):1090-1091.

USDA (United States Department of Agriculture) (2015). Economic Research Service. Accessed on 15 August 2018 at https://www.ers.usda.gov/data-products/.

Van TTH, Moutafis GM, Istivan T, Tran LT, Peter J, Coloe PJ (2007). Detection of Salmonella spp. in retail raw food samples from Vietnam and characterization of their antibiotic resistance. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 73(21):6885-6890.

WHO (World Health Organization) (2010). Laboratory protocol. In: Isolation of Salmonella spp. From food and animal faeces, 5th edn. http://antimicrobialresistance.dk/CustomerData/Files/Folders/6-pdf-protocols/63_18-05-isolation-of-salm-220610.pdf.

Yang B, Qu D, Zhang X, Shen J, Cui S, Shi Y, … Meng J (2010). Prevalence and characterization of Salmonella serovars in retail meats of marketplace in Shaanxi, China. International Journal of Food Microbiology 141(1):63-72.

Zhu J, Wang Y, Song X, Cui S, Xu H, Yang B, … Li F (2014). Prevalence and quantification of Salmonella contamination in raw chicken carcasses at the retail in China. Food Control 44:198-202.

How to Cite
OGU, G. I., & AKINNIBOSUN, F. I. (2019). Occurrence of Salmonella in Raw Chicken Meat from Retail Equipment and Environments in Southern Nigeria Open Markets. Notulae Scientia Biologicae, 11(2), 175-182. https://doi.org/10.15835/nsb11210469
Research articles