Abundance of Two Generalist Insect Pests of Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) as Influenced by NPK Fertilization
The influence of NPK fertilizer on the population of two generalist pests, grasshopper (Zonocerus variegatus) and termites (Isoptera spp.) on some cassava varieties (Manihot esculenta Crantz), was investigated in a field trial carried out at Teaching and Research Farm of Department of Crop science, University of Nigeria, Nsukka. The treatments comprised all possible combinations of four rates of fertilizer application (0 kg/ha, 200 kg/ha, 400 kg/ha and 600 kg/ha), four improved cassava varieties (‘TMS 01-1368’, ‘TME 419’, ‘TMS 98-05-50’, ‘TMS 05 10’) and three modes of fertilizer application (Single, Split and Split-split) arranged in a factorial experiment and laid out in a randomized complete block design (RCBD). There were three replications of each treatment. Data were collected on Z. variegatus and termite incidences. In each season, incidence of Z. variegatus on cassava showed significant (p<0.05) difference among varieties. Varieties ‘TMS 01-1368’, ‘TMS 05 10,’ and ‘TMS 98-05-05,’ were significantly (p<0.05) more susceptible to the pest compared to variety ‘TME 419’. Incidence of termites on cassava differed significantly (p<0.05) among varieties in the late season and variety TMS 05 10’ was more susceptible to this pest than other varieties. Rates of NPK fertilizer had significant (p<0.05) influence on Z. variegatus incidence only. Application of various NPK fertilizer rates increased the incidence of Z. variegatus on the varieties compared to plots without fertilizer (0 kg/ha). The abundance of Z. variegatus in cassava field was influenced by fertilization and variety while termites were influenced by variety.
Ademolu KO, Idowu BA, Oke AO (2011). Impact of reproductive activities on the tissues of (Zonocerus variegates) adult grasshopper (Orthoptera: Pygomorphidae). Florida Entomologist 94(4):993-997.
Agboola KF, Igue UB (2013). Detoxification of cyanide in insects.1 purification and some properties of rhodanese from the gut of the variegated grasshopper (Zonocerus variegatus) (Orthoptera: Pyrgorphidae). International Journal of Tropical Insect Science 33(3):153-162.
Amtmann A, Troufflard S, Armengaud P (2008). The effect of potassium nutrition on pest and disease resistance in plants. Physiologia Plantarum 133(4):682-691.
Baidoo PK, Mochiah MB (2011).The influence of nutrient application on pests natural enemies of pests okra Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) (Moench.). Journal of Applied Biological Science 1:2765-2771.
Baidoo PK, Mochiah MB, Asare D, Sefah AA (2018). Sustainable agricultural research. Canadian Center for Science and Education 7 (1).
Bamidele AO, Muse WA (2012). A morphometric study of the variegated grasshopper Zonocerus variegatus (l) (Othoptera: Pyromorphidae) from parts of southern Nigeria. Ife Journal of Science 14(1):61-73.
Bellotti AC (2002). Pest and Disease Management Project. Centro lnternacional de Agricultura Tropical (ClA T). A.A. 6713. Cali.
Chau LM, Cheng J, Heong KL (2003). Impacts of nutrition management on insect pests and diseases of rice. Omonrice 11:93-102.
Dauda SN, Ajayi FA, Ndor E (2008). Growth and yield of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) as affected by poultry manure application. Journal of Agricultural and Social Sciences 4(3):121-124.
Ewulo BS (2005). Effect of poultry dung and cattle manure on chemical and properties of clay and sandy clay loam soil. Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances 4(10):839-841.
Faye A, Sall SY, Dieynaba K, Papa DM, Demba F, Sane D (2015). Characteristics of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) stem on its varietal vulnerability to termites ravaging cuttings Odototermes sp. aff. erraticus. African Journal of Agricultural Research 10(19):2083-2088.
Feller IC (1995). Effects of nutrient enrichment on growth and herbivory of dwarf red mangrove (Rhizophora mangle). Ecological Monographs 65(4):477-505.
Hongoh Y (2011). Toward the functional analysis of uncultivable, symbiotic microorganisms in the termite gut. Cell and Molecular Life Sciences 68(8):1311-1325.
Ikpe FN, Powell JM (2002). Nutrient cycling practices and change in soil properties in livestock farming systems of western Niger Republic of West Africa. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems 62(1):37-45.
Mbagwu JSC (1992). Improving the productivity of a degraded ultisol in Nigeria using organic and inorganic amendments. Part 1: Chemical properties and maize yield. Bioresource Technology 42(2):149-154.
NCO (2019). North Country Organics. Fertility and insects. https://norganics.com/index-2/technical-articles/fertility-and-insects/.
Obi IU (2002). Statistical methods of detecting differences between treatment means and research methodology issues in laboratory and field experiment. Nsukka, Nigeria pp 34-44.
Ogbalu OK (1999). The effects of different traditional sources of nutrients on the infestation of pepper fruits by the pepper fruit fly, Atherigona orientalis (schiner) in Nigeria. Journal Agronomy and Crop Science 182(1):65-71.
Ogedegbe AB, Ezeh AE (2015). Effect of variety and nutrient on insect pest infestation of Amaranthus spp. Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management 19(2):251-256.
Oku EE, Arong GA, Bassey DA (2011). Species compostion of grasshoppers (Othoptera) in open plots and farmlands in Calabar Metropolis, southern Nigeria. Pakistan Journal of Biological Science 14(8):507-510.
Page WW (1978). The biology and control of grasshopper Zonocerus variegatus. Pans 24(3):270-277.
Weeraddana CS, Evenden ML (2018). Canola nutrition and variety effect on oviposition and offspring performance in the generalist herbivore, Manestra configurata (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Journal of Economic Entomology 11(4):1702-1710.
Yardim N, Erdal E, Clive A (2004). Effects of organic and synthetic fertilizer sources on pest and predatory insects associated with tomatoes. Phytoparasitica 31(4):324-329.
Youdeowei A (1974). Dissection of variegated grasshopper: Zonocerus variegatus (L). Oxford University Press, Ibadan, Nigeria.
Distribution - Permissions - Copyright
Papers published in Notulae Scientia Biologicae are Open-Access, distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution License.
© Articles by the authors; licensee SHST, Cluj-Napoca, Romania. The journal allows the author(s) to hold the copyright/to retain publishing rights without restriction.
Open Access Journal - the journal offers free, immediate, and unrestricted access to peer-reviewed research and scholarly work, due SHST supports to increase the visibility, accessibility and reputation of the researchers, regardless of geography and their budgets. Users are allowed to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of the articles, or use them for any other lawful purpose, without asking prior permission from the publisher or the author.