Prevalence of Increased Serum Urea and Creatinine Levels in Dogs
The causes of kidney dysfunction could be related to damages to the glomeruli, nephron, tubules, interstitial tissues and renal blood vessels. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of increased levels of serum urea and serum creatinine in dogs presented at the University of Nigeria Veterinary Teaching Hospital (UNVTH). A kidney function test was conducted in dogs for a six-month period (January - June) using kidney function biomarkers (creatinine and urea). A total of 45 dogs were examined. For each dog presented, two milliliters of blood were collected from the cephalic vein for serum biochemistry determinations. Data obtained from this study were analyzed using descriptive statistics. CHI square was used to calculate the strength of association between increased levels of serum urea and creatinine, and sex, age and breed. The prevalence of increased level of serum urea was 71.1% while that of increased level of serum creatinine was 8.9%. There were no significant association between increases in serum creatinine or serum urea, and sex, age and breed. The prevalence of acute kidney injury was 8.9%. There was no significant association between acute kidney injury (AKI) and sex, age and breed but the risk of having AKI in older dogs were higher if dehydrated and if there was an obstruction to urinary outflow. The results of this study have shown that a greater number of dogs presented at UNVTH suffered from mild loss of kidney function which was not the reason for their presentation at UNVTH. Therefore, routine kidney function tests should be conducted especially on severely sick dogs, as this will help in choice of the drugs.
Bellomo R, Kellum JA, Ronco C (2012). Acute kidney injury. Lancet 380(9843):756-766.
Blass KG, Thiebert RJ, Lam LK (1974). A study of the mechanism of the Jaffe reaction. Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine 12(7):336-343.
Braun JP, Lefebvre HP, Watson AD (2003). Creatinine in the dog: a review. Veterinary Clinical Pathology 32(4):162-179.
Kumar V, Abbas AK, Aster JC (2014). Robbins and Cotran pathologic basis of disease. St. Louis, MO. Elsevier Saunders.
Cowgill LD, Francey T (2005). Acute uremia. In: Ettinger SJ, Feidman EC (Eds). Textbook of veterinary internal medicine, 6th edition. Philadelphia, Saunders WB pp 1731-1751.
De loor J, Daminet S, Smets P, Maddens B, Meyer E (2018). Urinary biomarkers for acute kidney injury in dogs. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine 27(5):998-1010.
Defauw P, Daminet S, Leisewitz AL, Goddard A, Paepe D, Duchateau L, Schoeman JP (2018). Renal azotemia and associated clinical and laboratory findings in dogs with Babesia rossi infection. The Veterinary Journal 260:22-29.
Eisenbrandt DL, Phemister RD (1979). Postnatal development of the canine kidney: quantitative and qualitative morphology. American Journal of Anatomy 154(2):179-193.
Fawcett JK, Scott JE (1960). A rapid and precise method for the determination of urea. Journal of Clinical Pathology 13(2):156-159.
Federal Ministry of Agriculture and Natural Resources (FMANR) (1999) Geographical data. FMNAR, Enugu, Nigeria.
Francey T, Cowgill LD (2002). Use of hemodialysis for the treatment of acute renal failure (AFR) in the dog: 124 cases (1990-2001). Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine 16:352.
Goljan EF (2007). Rapid review pathology (2nd edition). Mosby.
Hoffman P, Keller F (2012). Increased major bleeding risk in patients with kidney dysfunction receiving enoxaparin: a meta-analysis. European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 68 (5):757-765.
Holley JL (2009). Clinical approach to the diagnosis of acute renal failure. In: Greenberg A, Cheung AK (Eds). Primer on kidney diseases. 5th edition Philadelphia, Pa. National Kidney Foundation.
Ihedioha JI, Chineme CN (2004). Fundamentals of systemic veterinary pathology, Volume 1. Great AP Express Publishers Limited Nigeria.
Kellum JA, Bellomo R, Ronco C (2004). Defining acute renal failure: physiologic principles. Intensive Care Medicine 30(1):33-37.
Levey AS, Eckardt KU, Tsukamoto Y, Levin A, Coresh J, Rossert J, … Eknoyan G (2005). Definition and classification of chronic kidney disease: a position statement from kidney disease: Improving global outcome (KDIGO). Kidney International 67(6):2089-2100.
Lulich J, Osborne CA, O’Brien TD, Polzin DJ (1992). Feline renal failure: questions, answers, questions. Compendium Continuing Education for Veterinarian 14:127-152.
Lumsden JH, Mullen K, McSherry BJ (1979). Canine hematology and biochemistry reference values. Canadian Journal of Comparative Medicine 43(2):125-131.
Mehta RL, Kellum JA, Shah SV, Molitoris BA, Ronco C, Warnock DG, Levin A (2007). Acute kidney injury network: report of an initiative to improve outcomes in acute kidney injury. Critical Care 11(2):R31.
Pocock G (2006). Human physiology. Third edition. Oxford University Press, UK.
Polzin DJ, Osborne CA, Ross S (2005). Chronic kidney disease. In: Ettinger SJ, Feldman EC (Eds). Textbook of veterinary internal medicine: Diseases of the dog and cats, 6th ed. Stephen JE, Feldman EC (Eds). St. Louis, MO, Oxford, Elsevier Saunders pp 1756-1785.
Polzin DJ (2011). Chronic kidney disease in small animals. Veterinary clinics North America: Small Animal Practice 41:15-30.
Robertson JL (1986). Spontaneous renal disease in dogs. Journal Toxicology and Pathology 14(1):101-108.
Schrier RW, Wang W, Poole B, Mitra A (2004). Acute renal failure: definitions, diagnosis, pathogenesis, and therapy. Journal of Clinical Investigation 114(1):5-14.
Segev G, Kass HP, Francey T, Cowgill LD (2007). A novel clinical scoring system for outcome prediction in dogs with acute kidney injury managed by hemodialysis. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine 22(2):301-308.
Singh TB, Rathore SS, Choudhury TA, Shukla VK, Singh DK, Prakash J (2013). Hospital-acquired acute kidney injury in medical, surgical, and intensive care unit: A comparative study. Indian Journal of Nephrology 23(1):24-29.
Star RA (1998). Treatment of acute renal failure. Kidney International 54(6):1817-1831.
Stockham SL, Scott MA (2008). Fundamentals of veterinary clinical pathology. 2nd ed. Blackwell Publishing Iowa, USA.
Tierney LM, McPhee SJ, Papadakis MA (2005). Current medical diagnosis and treatment. 44th edition. McGraw-Hill.
Van den Berg MF, Schoeman JP, Defauw P, Whitehead Z, Breemersch A, Goethals K, … Meyer E (2018). Assessment of acute kidney injury in canine parvovirus infection: Comparison of kidney injury biomarkers with routine renal functional parameters. The Veterinary Journal 242:8-14.
Klahr S, Miller SB (1998). Acute oliguria. New England Journal of Medicine 338(10):671-675.
Wedro B (2018). Kidney failure symptoms, signs, stages and treatment. Retrieved 2018 November 7 from www.medicinenet.com.
Weisberg LS (2008). Management of severe hyperkalemia. Critical care Medicine 36(12):3246-3251.
Copyright (c) 2019 Notulae Scientia Biologicae
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Distribution - Permissions - Copyright
Papers published in Notulae Scientia Biologicae are Open-Access, distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution License.
© Articles by the authors; licensee SHST, Cluj-Napoca, Romania. The journal allow the author(s) to hold the copyright/to retain publishing rights without restriction.
Open Access Journal - the journal offers free, immediate, and unrestricted access to peer-reviewed research and scholarly work, due SHST supports to increase the visibility, accessibility and reputation of the researchers, regardless of geography and their budgets. Users are allowed to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of the articles, or use them for any other lawful purpose, without asking prior permission from the publisher or the author.