Effect of Exogenous Application of Several Plant Growth Regulators on Photosynthetic Pigments of Fennel Plants
In order to investigate the effects of some plant growth regulators on photosynthetic pigments and growth of fennel plants, a greenhouse experiment was conducted based on the randomized complete block design with three replicates in 2017. Treatments were the application of methyl jasmonate (25, 50, 100 and 200 μM), putrescine (0.25, 0.5, 1 and 2 mM) and 24-Epibrassinolide at 0.001, 0.01, 0.1 and 1 μM and distilled water as a control. The results indicated that application of 0.5 Mm putrescine, exhibited significant effects on the chlorophyll a (62%), b (104%), total chlorophyll (72%), carotenoids (51%), flavonoids (51%), anthocyanin content (-14%), phenolic compounds (13%) and maximum quantum efficiency (17%) in dark condition and in light condition. Application of 24-Epibrassinolide resulted in a significant increase of chlorophyll a and total chlorophyll, carotenoids, phenol content, maximum quantum efficiency in the dark condition and photochemical quenching of fluorescence. The highest chlorophyll content and carotenoids were observed in treated plants with 0.1 μM 24-Epibrassinolide, while the maximum phenol content was obtained by application of 0.01 μM 24-Epibrassinolide. The application of methyl jasmonate significantly affected the major chlorophyll and accessory pigments (except phenol) of fennel. Plants treated with 50 μM methyl jasmonate exhibited higher concentrations of chlorophyll a (3.25 mg per g FW-1), total chlorophyll (4.35 mg per g FW-1), carotenoids (0.87 mg per g FW-1) and flavonoids (4.75 μg per g FW-1). A significant dry weight increased after the application of methyl jasmonate and it can be concluded that the most effective treatment in this regard for fennel plants was 50 μM methyl jasmonate.
Akram NA, Ashraf M (2013). Regulation in plant stress tolerance by a potential plant growth regulator, 5-aminolevulinic acid. Journal of Plant Growth Regulation 32(3):663-679.
Alcázar R, Altabella T, Marco F, Bortolotti C, Reymond M, Koncz C, Tiburcio AF (2010). Polyamines: molecules with regulatory functions in plant abiotic stress tolerance. Planta 231(6):1237-1249.
Anjum SA, Xie XY, Farooq M, Wang LC, Xue LI, Shahbaz M, Salhab J (2011). Effect of exogenous methyl jasmonate on growth, gas exchange and chlorophyll contents of soybean subjected to drought. African Journal of Biotechnology 10(47):9647-9656.
Anuradha S, Rao SER (2011). Amelioration of lead toxicity in radish (Raphanus sativus L) plants by brassinolide. Journal of Applied Biological Sciences 3:43-48.
Anuradha S, Rao SSR (2003). Application of brassinosteroids to rice seeds (Oryza sativa L.) reduced the impact of salt stress on growth, prevented photosynthetic pigment loss and increased nitrate reductase activity. Plant Growth Regulation 40(1):29-32.
Aprotosoaie AC, Spac A, Hancianu M, Miron A, Tanasescu VF, Dorneanu V, Stanescu U (2010). The chemical profile of essential oils obtained from fennel fruits (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.). Farmacia 58(1):46-53.
Araújo WL, Nunes-Nesi A, Osorio S, Usadel B, Fuentes D, Nagy R, Martinoia E (2011). Antisense inhibition of the iron-sulphur subunit of succinate dehydrogenase enhances photosynthesis and growth in tomato via an organic acid–mediated effect on stomatal aperture. The Plant Cell tpc-110.
Arnon AN (1967). Method of extraction of chlorophyll in the plants. Agronomy Journal 23:112-121.
Arnon DI (1949). Copper enzymes in isolated chloroplasts. Polyphenoloxidase in Beta vulgaris. Plant Physiology 24(1):1-15.
Asgher M, Khan MIR, Anjum NA, Khan NA (2015). Minimising toxicity of cadmium in plants-role of plant growth regulators. Protoplasma 252(2):399-413.
Bajguz A (2000). Blockade of heavy metals accumulation in Chlorella vulgaris cells by 24-epibrassinolide. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry 38(10):797-801.
Bari R, Jones JDG (2009). Role of plant hormones in plant defence responses. Plant Molecular Biology 69(4):473-488.
Berry PM, Sylvester-Bradley R, Berry S (2007). Ideotype design for lodging-resistant wheat. Euphytica 154(1-2):165-179.
Cevahir G, Yentür S, Eryilmaz F, Yilmazer N (2008). Influence of brassinosteroids on pigment content of Glycine max L. (soybean) grown in dark and light. Journal of Applied Biological Sciences 1:23-28.
Diao W-R, Hu Q-P, Zhang H, Xu J-G (2014). Chemical composition, antibacterial activity and mechanism of action of essential oil from seeds of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.). Food Control 35(1):109-116.
DÃaz-Maroto MC, Pérez-Coello MS, Esteban J, Sanz J (2006). Comparison of the volatile composition of wild fennel samples (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) from Central Spain. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 54(18):6814-6818.
Eyidogan F, Oz MT, Yucel M, Oktem HA (2012). Signal transduction of phytohormones under abiotic stresses. In: Phytohormones and Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Plants. Springer pp 1-48.
Fariduddin Q, Yusuf M, Ahmad I, Ahmad A (2014). Brassinosteroids and their role in response of plants to abiotic stresses. Biologia Plantarum 58(1):9-17.
Fletcher R, Kott LS (1999). Phenolics and cold tolerance of Brassica napus. Proc 10th Int Rapeseed Congr GCIRC, Canberra, Australia.
Hanaka A, Maksymiec W, Bednarek W (2015). The effect of methyl jasmonate on selected physiological parameters of copper-treated Phaseolus coccineus plants. Plant Growth Regulation 77(2):167-177.
Hasanuzzaman M, Nahar K, Fujita M (2014). Regulatory role of polyamines in growth, development and abiotic stress tolerance in plants. Plant Adaptation to Environmental Change: Significance of Amino Acids and Their Derivatives 157-193.
Hashmi N, Khan MMA, Idrees M, Khan ZH, Ali A, Varshney L (2012). Depolymerized carrageenan ameliorates growth, physiological attributes, essential oil yield and active constituents of Foeniculum vulgare Mill. Carbohydrate Polymers 90(1):407-412.
Hayat S, Alyemeni MN, Hasan SA (2012). Foliar spray of brassinosteroid enhances yield and quality of Solanum lycopersicum under cadmium stress. Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences 19(3):325-335.
Houimli SIM, Denden M, El Hadj S Ben (2008). Induction of salt tolerance in pepper (Capsicum annuum) by 24-epibrassinolide. EurAsian Journal of BioSciences 1(2):83-90.
Igarashi K, Kashiwagi K (2000). Polyamines: mysterious modulators of cellular functions. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 271(3):559-564.
Jin W-W, Wang Y, Zhang H-H, Zhi-Li J, Peng W, Xin L, Guang-Yu S (2011). Effects of foliar spraying methyl jasmonate on leaf chlorophyll fluorescence characteristics of flue-cured tobacco seedlings under drought and re-watering. The Journal of Applied Ecology 22(12):3157-3162.
Krizek DT, Britz SJ, Mirecki RM (1998). Inhibitory effects of ambient levels of solar UVâ€A and UVâ€B radiation on growth of cv. ‘New Red Fire’ lettuce. Physiologia Plantarum 103(1):1-7.
Mahfouz SA, Sharaf-Eldin MA (2007). Effect of mineral vs. biofertilizer on growth, yield, and essential oil content of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.). International Agrophysics 21(4):361.
Mahros KM, El-Saady MB, Mahgoub MH, Afaf MH, El-Sayed MI (2011). Effect of putrescine and uniconazole treatments on flower characters and photosynthetic pigments of Chrysanthemum indicum. L plant. Journal of American Science 7:399-408.
MarÃn-Navarro J, Manuell AL, Wu J, Mayfield SP (2007). Chloroplast translation regulation. Photosynthesis Research 94(2-3):359-374.
Nanvakenary R, Moradi H, Ghasemiomran S (2013). Effects of putrescine on morphological and physiological characteristics of ornamental plant African violet (Saintpaulia ionantha). Bulletin of Environment, Pharmacology and Life Science 2(10):118-122.
Navakoudis E, Vrentzou K, Kotzabasis K (2007). A polyamine-and LHCII protease activity-based mechanism regulates the plasticity and adaptation status of the photosynthetic apparatus. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA)-Bioenergetics 1767(4):261-271.
PiÃ±ol R, Simón E (2009). Effect of 24-Epibrassinolide on chlorophyll fluorescence and photosynthetic CO2 assimilation in Vicia faba plants treated with the photosynthesis-inhibiting herbicide terbutryn. Journal of Plant Growth Regulation 28(2):97-105.
Rascher U, Liebig M, Lüttge U (2000). Evaluation of instant lightâ€response curves of chlorophyll fluorescence parameters obtained with a portable chlorophyll fluorometer on site in the field. Plant, Cell & Environment 23(12):1397-1405.
Rather MA, Dar BA, Sofi SN, et al. (2016). Foeniculum vulgare: A comprehensive review of its traditional use, phytochemistry, pharmacology, and safety. Arabian Journal of Chemistry 9:S1574-S1583.
Shu S, Yuan L-Y, Guo S-R, Sun J, Liu CJ (2012). Effects of exogenous spermidine on photosynthesis, xanthophyll cycle and endogenous polyamines in cucumber seedlings exposed to salinity. African Journal of Biotechnology 11(22):6064-6074.
Tang J, Han Z, Chai J (2016). Q&A: what are brassinosteroids and how do they act in plants. BMC Biology 14(1):1-5.
Vardhini BV, Anuradha S, Rao SSR (2006). Brassinosteroids-new class of plant hormone with potential to improve crop productivity. Indian Journal of Plant Physiology 11(1):1.
Wagner GJ (1979). Content and vacuole/extravacuole distribution of neutral sugars, free amino acids, and anthocyanin in protoplasts. Plant Physiology 64(1):88-93.
Wang Z-Y, Wang Q, Chong K, et al. (2006). The brassinosteroid signal transduction pathway. Cell Research 16(5):427.
Wierstra I, Kloppstech K (2000). Differential effects of methyl jasmonate on the expression of the early light-inducible proteins and other light-regulated genes in barley. Plant Physiology 124(2):833-844.
Yuan Y, Shu S, Li S, et al. (2014). Effects of exogenous putrescine on chlorophyll fluorescence imaging and heat dissipation capacity in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) under salt stress. Journal of Plant Growth Regulation 33(4):798-808.
Yuan Y, Zhong M, Shu S, Du, N, He L, Yuan L, Guo S (2015). Effects of exogenous putrescine on leaf anatomy and carbohydrate metabolism in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) under salt stress. Journal of Plant Growth Regulation 34(3):451-464.
Zhang L, Paakkarinen V, van Wijk KJ, Aro E-M (2000). Biogenesis of the chloroplast-encoded D1 protein: regulation of translation elongation, insertion, and assembly into photosystem II. The Plant Cell 12(9):1769-1781.
Papers published in Notulae Scientia Biologicae are Open-Access, distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution License.
© Articles by the authors; licensee SMTCT, Cluj-Napoca, Romania. The journal allows the author(s) to hold the copyright/to retain publishing rights without restriction.
Open Access Journal - the journal offers free, immediate, and unrestricted access to peer-reviewed research and scholarly work, due SMTCT supports to increase the visibility, accessibility and reputation of the researchers, regardless of geography and their budgets. Users are allowed to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of the articles, or use them for any other lawful purpose, without asking prior permission from the publisher or the author.