Genetic Diversity Based on ISSR Markers of Apple Genotypes in Ardahan/Turkey
Within the present study, it was conducted a genetic diversity analysis using ISSR markers for some apple genotypes grown in Ardahan region, Turkey. Total genomic DNA (gDNA) isolation from apple leaves was performed using commercial kits. Five ISSR primers were used to determine the genetic diversity among the genotypes studied. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) was performed with all gDNA samples to produce bands to score. PCR products were run in agarose gel and visualized under UV light. Bands on the gels were scored as “1”, while no bands at the corresponding positions were scored as “0”, to generate the matrix file. Five ISSR primers produced a total of 35 bands, and 20 of them were polymorphic. The polymorphic bands rated approximately 57%. Phylogenetic relationships and genetic distances between the genotypes were calculated by using the PAUP [Phylogenetic Analysis Using Parsimony (and Other Methods)] program. According to the PAUP data, the closest genetic distance was 0.03704 between ‘Kaburga’ and ‘Japon Apple’ genotypes, while the furthest genetic distance was 0.48148 between ‘Karanfil Apple’ and ‘Sisli Uruset’. The phylogenetic analysis obtained using UPGMA algorithm produced a phylogenetic tree with two clades. The results suggest that ISSR markers are useful tools for determining genetic relationships among apple genotypes.
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