Efficacy of Entomopathogenic Nematode Steinernema feltiae (Filipjev) as a Biological Control Agent of Lentil Weevil, Bruchus lentis, Under Laboratory Conditions
Stored-product pests in the family Bruchidae of Coleoptera represent important pests affecting legume seeds. The lentil weevil, Bruchus lentis Froelich (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae) is one of the major lentil pests in Iran and in the world. The economic losses caused by this pest on lentil grow up to 40%. Synthetic pesticides are currently the chosen method to protect stored grain from insect damage. However, their widespread use has led to the development of pest strains resistant to insecticides and pest resurgence. In recent years, nonchemical methods, including biological agents are considered safe methods to control the stored grain pests. Positive characteristics of entomopathogenic nematodes as biological control factors of arthropod pests, introduce them as an appropriate option for controlling the integrated pest management of lentil weevil. In the present study, an isolate of entomopathogenic nematode, Steinernema feltiae, isolated from soils around Yasouj and based on morphological traits and morphometric data were identified. Adult insects of lentil weevil were exposed to concentrations of 0; 500; 1,000; 2,000 and 3,000 infective juvenile/ml of distilled water at different temperatures (20, 23, 26 and 29 °C). Insects were placed on filter paper impregnated with 1 ml of nematode suspension in Petri dishes for three days. Mortality of the insects was recorded every 24 hours. The highest mortality was recorded after 72 hours, which represented 79.40%, at the concentration of 3,000 infective juvenile at 26 °C.
Aydin H, Susurluk A (2005). Competitive abilities of entomopathogenic nematodes, Steinernema feltiae and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora in the same host at different temperatures. Turkish Journal Biology 29(1):35-39.
Bahl FS, Averbeck D, Averbeck B, Idaomar M (2008). Biological effects of essential oils a review. Food and Chemistry Toxicology 46(2):446â€475.
Bakr MA (1994). Plant protection of lentil in Bangladesh (Lens culinaris). In: Erskine W, Saxena MC (Eds). Lentil in South Asia, Proceedings of the seminar on Lentil in South Asia, Indian Council of Agricultural Research, New Delhi, India: International center for Agricultural Research in the dry areas (ICARDA), Aleppo (Syria), pp 177-186.
Bedding A, Akhurst RJ (1975). A simple technique for the detection of insect parasitic rhabditid nematodeisn soil. Nematologica 21(1):109-110.
Cokkizgin A, Shtaya MJY (2013). Lentil: origin, cultivation techniques, utilization and advances in transformation. Agricultural Science 1(1):55-2.
Crespi M (2007). Analysis of the response to abiotic stress in legumes. Retrieved 5.01.2008 from www.grainlegumes.com.
Csontos AS (2002). Lateral movement of the entomopathogenic nematodes Steinernema glaseri and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora in sand at different temperatures in response to host seeking. Biocontrol Science and Technology 12(1):137-139.
Deeba F, Sarwar M, Khuhro RD (2006). Varietal susceptibility of mungbean genotypes to pulse beetle, Callosobruchus analis (Fabricius) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). Pakistan Journal of Zoology 38(4):265-268.
Duke GT, Yadav TD (2000). Feeding of Callosobruchus maculatus (Fab.) and Callosobruchus chinensis L. in green gram. Indian Journal of Entomology 40:108â€112.
Ehlers RU (2011). Current and future use of nematodes in biocontrol: Practice and commercial aspects in regard to regulatory policies. Biocontrol Science and Technology 6(3):303-316.
Forst S, Nealson K (1996). Molecular biology of the symbiotic pathogenic bacteria Xenorhabdus and Photorhabdus spp. Microbiological Reviews 60(1):21-43.
Gaugler R (2002). Entomopathogenic nematology. CABI Publishing, Wallingford, UK pp 400.
Gaugler R, Lewis E, Stuart RJ (1997). Ecology in the service of biological control: the case of entomopathogenic nematodes. Oecologia 109(4):483-489.
Georgis R, Kaya HK, Gaugler R (1991). Effect of steinernematid and heterorhabditid nematodes (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae and Heterorhabditidae) on nontarget arthropods. Environmental Entomology 20(3):815-822.
Gouge DH, Hague NGM (1993). Effects of Steinernema feltiae against sciarids infesting conifers in a propagation house. Tests of Agrochemical and Cultivars.
Groot ID (2004). Protection of stored grains and pulses. Fifth edition, Digigrafi, Wageningen, the Netherlands. Agromisa Foundation 18 pp 78.
Hala MS, Metwally Gehan A, Hafez Mona A, Hussein MA, Hussein HA, Salem MME (2012). Low cost artificial diet for rearing the greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella L. (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) as a host for entomopathogenic nematodes. Egyptian Journal of Biological Pest Control 22(1):15-17.
Hominick WM, Reid AP, Bohan DA, Briscoe BR (1996). Entomopathogenic nematodes: Biodiversity, geographical distribution and the convention on biological diversity. Biocontrol Science Technology 6(3):317-331.
Jess S, Bingham JFW (2004). Biological control of sciarid and phorid pests of mushroom with predatory mites from the genus Hypoaspis (Acari: Hypoaspidae) and the entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema feltiae. Bulletin of Entomological Research 94(2):159-167.
Khan MZ, Ali MR, Bhuiyan MSI, Hossain MA (2015). Eco-friendly management of pulse beetle, Callosobruchus chinensis Linn. using fumigants on stored mungbean. International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications 5(5):1-6.
Kossou DK, Gbehounou G, Ahanchede A, Ahohuendo B, Bouraima Y, Huis AV (2001). Indigenous cowpea production and protection practices in Benin. International Journal of Tropical Insect Science 21(2):123-132.
Lucskai A (1999). Identification key to entomopathogenic nematdoe species. Acta Phytopathologica et Entomologica Hungarica 34(4):317-325.
Majka CG, Langor D (2011). The bean weevils (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae) of Atlantic Canada. Journal of the Acadian Entomological Society 7(11):75-82.
Polanco I, Rennie M (2004). Evaluation of certain spices for the control of Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabricius) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) in cowpea seeds. African Journal of Entomology 3(1):87â€89.
Rehman M, Mohammad F, Ahmed A, Skari M (1992). Screening of tropical plants for the presence of bioactive compounds. Pertanika 15:131â€135.
Saeidi K (1999). Investigation on the timing of chemical control of lentil weevil, Bruchus lentis (Coleoptera:Bruchidae) in lentil fields in Gachsaran region. Final Report, Agricultural and Natural Research Centre of Yasouj. Yasouj, Iran pp 45.
Saeidi K, Shahab-Ghayoor H (2015). Evaluation of botanical insecticides against lentil weevil, Bruchus lentis Frolich (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae) under laboratory conditions. Agricultural Communications 3(4):23-27.
Sarwar M (2010). Some possibilities on the effectiveness of plant powders as grain protectants against cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabricius) Walp (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) infestation in chickpea. International Journal of Agronomy and Plant Production 1(2):45-50.
Sarwar M (2012). Assessment of resistance to the attack of lentil beetle Bruchus lentis (F.) in lentil genotypes on the basis of various parameters during storage. Songklanakarin Journal of Science and Technology 34(3):287-291.
Shahina F, Salma J (2009). Laboratory evaluation of seven Pakistani strains of entomopathogenic nematodes against a stored grain insect pest, pulse beetle Callosobruchus chinensis (L.). Journal of Nematology 41(4):255-260.
Stuart RJ, Barbercheck ME, Parwinder SG, Robin AJ, Taylor CW (2006). Population biology of entomopathogenic nematodes: Concepts, issues, and models. Biological Control 38(1):80-102.
Taghizadehâ€Saroukolai A, Meshkatalsadat MS (2010). Insecticidal properties of Thymus parsecs essential oil against Tribolium castaneum and Sitophilus oryzae. Journal of Pest Science 83(1):3â€8.
Ward RL (1999). Monitoring of the bean seed beetle (Bruchus rufimanus) in field beans (Vicia faba). Aspects of Applied Biology 56:145-150.
White NDG (2001). Protection of farm-stored grains, oilseeds and pulses from insects, mites and moulds. Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada Publication pp 53.
Papers published in Notulae Scientia Biologicae are Open-Access, distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution License.
© Articles by the authors; licensee SMTCT, Cluj-Napoca, Romania. The journal allows the author(s) to hold the copyright/to retain publishing rights without restriction.
Open Access Journal - the journal offers free, immediate, and unrestricted access to peer-reviewed research and scholarly work, due SMTCT supports to increase the visibility, accessibility and reputation of the researchers, regardless of geography and their budgets. Users are allowed to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of the articles, or use them for any other lawful purpose, without asking prior permission from the publisher or the author.