Yellow Rust (Puccinia striiformis): a Serious Threat to Wheat Production Worldwide
Keywords:epidemiology; management; Puccinia striiformis; stripe rust; wheat
Wheat (Triticum sp. L.), as one of the first domesticated food crops, is the basic staple food for a large segment of population around the world. The crop though is susceptible to many fungal pathogens. Stripe rust is an important airborne disease caused by Puccinia striiformis (Pst) and is widespread wherever wheat is cultivated throughout the world, in temperate-cool and wet environments. The causal fungus of stripe rust or yellow rust is an obligate parasite that requires another living host to complete its life cycle. Pst includes five types of spores in the life cycle on two distinct hosts. Stripe rust is distinguished from other rusts by the dusty yellow lesions that grow systemically in the form of streaks between veins and on leaf sheaths. The importance and occurrence of stripe rust disease varies in cultivated wheat, depending on environmental conditions (moisture, temperature, and wind), inoculum levels and susceptible host varieties. Transcaucasia was previously thought to be the center of origin for the pathogen. However, new findings further underlined Himalayan and near-Himalayan regions as center of diversity and a more tenable center of origin for P. striiformis. Long-distance dispersal of stripe rust pathogen in the air and occasionally by human activities enables Pst to spread to new geographical areas. This disease affects quality and yield of wheat crop. Early seeding, foliar fungicide application and cultivation of resistant varieties are the main strategies for its control. The emergence of new races of Pst with high epidemic potential which can adapt to warmer temperatures has expanded virulence profiles. Subsequently, races are more aggressive than those previously characterized. These findings emphasize the need for more breeding efforts of resistant varieties and reinforcement of other management practices to prevent and overcome stripe rust epidemic around the world.
Acevedo E, Silva P, Silva H (2006). Growth and wheat physiology, development. Laboratory of Soil-Plant-Water Relations. Faculty of Agronomy and Forestry Sciences. University of Chile. Casilla, 1004.
Aktar-Uz-Zaman M, Tuhina-Khatun M, Hanafi MM, Sahebi M (2017). Genetic analysis of rust resistance genes in global wheat cultivars: an overview. Biotechnology & Biotechnological Equipment 31(3):431-445.
Al-Khayri JM, Jain SM, Johnson DV (2016). Advances in plant breeding strategies: Agronomic, Abiotic and Biotic Stress Traits, Springer.
Ali S, Gladieux P, Leconte M, Gautier A, Justesen AF, Hovmøller MS, Enjalbert J, De Vallavieille-Pope C (2014). Origin, migration routes and worldwide population genetic structure of the wheat yellow rust pathogen Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici. PLoS Pathogens 10(1): e1003903.
Ali S, Rodriguez-Algaba J, Thach T, Sørensen CK, Hansen JG, Lassen P,Nazari K, Hodson DP, Justesen AF, Hovmøller MS (2017). Yellow rust epidemics worldwide were caused by pathogen races from divergent genetic lineages. Frontiers in Plant Science 8:1057.
Asseng S, Foster I, Turner NC (2011). The impact of temperature variability on wheat yields. Global Change Biology 17(2):997-1012.
Baily J ( 2013). Molecular and host specificity studies in Puccinia striiformis in Australia. Doctor of Philosophy, PhD Thesis, The University of Sydney, Plant Breeding Institute, Narrabi.
Balaghi R, Jlibene M, Tychon B, Eerens H (2012). La prédiction agrométéorologique des rendements céréaliers au Maroc [Agrometeorological prediction of cereal yields in Morocco]. INRA, Maroc.
Berlin A, Samils B, Andersson B (2017). Multiple genotypes within aecial clusters in Puccinia graminis and Puccinia coronata: improved understanding of the biology of cereal rust fungi. Fungal Biology and Biotechnology 4(1):3.
Boshoff W, Pretorius Z, van Niekerk B (2003). Fungicide efficacy and the impact of stripe rust on spring and winter wheat in South Africa. South African Journal of Plant and Soil 20:11-17.
Boyd L (2005). Can Robigus defeat an old enemy?–Yellow rust of wheat. The Journal of Agricultural Science 143(4):233-243.
Brar GS (2015). Population structure of Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici, the cause of wheat stripe rust, in western Canada. Master of Science., University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon.
Brown JK, Hovmøller MS (2002). Aerial dispersal of pathogens on the global and continental scales and its impact on plant disease. Science 297(5581):537-541.
Bulli P, Zhang J, Chao S, Chen X, Pumphrey M (2016). Genetic architecture of resistance to stripe rust in a global winter wheat germplasm collection. G3 (Bethesda) 6(8):2237-2253.
Cartwright D, Russell G (1981). Development of Puccinia striiformis in a susceptible winter wheat variety. Transactions of the British Mycological Society 76(2):197-204.
Castro A (2001). Cultivar mixtures. The Plant Health Instructor.
Chakraborty S, Newton AC (2011). Climate change, plant diseases and food security: an overview. Plant Pathology 60(1):2-14.
Chen X (2005). Epidemiology and control of stripe rust [Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici] on wheat. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology 27(3):314-337.
Chen X (2007). Challenges and solutions for stripe rust control in the United States. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 58(6):648-655.
Chen X (2013). High-temperature adult-plant resistance, key for sustainable control of stripe rust. American Journal of Plant Sciences 4(03):608.
Chen X (2014). Integration of cultivar resistance and fungicide application for control of wheat stripe rust. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology 36(3):311-326.
Confalonieri R, Francone C, Cappelli G, Stella T, Frasso N, Carpani M, M, Bregaglio S, Acutis M, Tubiello F, Fernandes E (2013). A multi-approach software library for estimating crop suitability to environment. Computers and Electronics in Agriculture 90:170-175.
Conner R, Kuzyk A (1988). Effectiveness of fungicides in controlling stripe rust, leaf rust and black point in soft white spring wheat. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology 10:321-326.
Cox T (1997). Deepening the wheat gene pool. Journal of Crop Production 1(1):1-25.
Curtis B (2002). Wheat in the world. Bread wheat: Improvement and production. No. CIS-3616. CIMMYT.
Curtis B, Rajaram S, Macpherson H (2002). FAO Plant Production and Protection Series, No. 30. Bread Wheat: Improvement and Production. No. CIS-3616. CIMMYT.
Dixon J, Braun H, Crouch J (2009). Overview: transitioning wheat research to serve the future needs of the developing world. Wheat Facts and Futures 1-25.
El Mekki AA (2006). Cereals policies in Morocco.
Ellis JG, Lagudah ES, Spielmeyer W, Dodds PN (2014). The past, present and future of breeding rust resistant wheat. Frontiers in Plant Science 5:641.
FAO (2017). Food and Agriculture Organization of united nations. Retrieved 2018 March 31 from http:// www. fao.org/ giews/ countrybrief/country.jsp?code=MAR
FAO (2018). Food and Agriculture Organization. Retrieved 2018 March 31 from http://www.fao.org/worldfoodsituation/csdb/en/
FAOSTAT (2018). Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Statistical Database. Retrieved 28 February 2018 from. http://faostat.fao.org
Feldman M, Levy AA (2012). Genome evolution due to allopolyploidization in wheat. Genetics 192(3):763-774.
Feuillet C, Muehlbauer GJ (2009). Genetics and genomics of the Triticeae (Vol. 7). Springer Science & Business Media.
Francisco XRdV, Parlevliet JE, Zambolim L (2001). Concepts in plant disease resistance. Fitopatologia Brasileira 26:577-589.
Getie B (2015). Identification, genetic studies and molecular characterisation of resistance to rust pathogens in wheat. Doctor in philosophy, the university of Sydney, Plant Breeding Institute, Cobbitty, March 2015.
Gommes R, El Hairech T, Rosillon D, Balaghi R, Kanamaru H (2009). Impact of climate change on agricultural yields in Morocco. Rome: FAO. Retrieved 2014 22 April from ftp: //extftp.fao.org /SD/Reserved /Agromet/ WB_FAO_morocco_CC_yield_impact/report/Goncharov NP, Golovnina KA, Kondratenko EY (2009). Taxonomy and molecular phylogeny of natural and artificial wheat species. Breeding Science 59(5):492-498.
Harlan JR, de Wet JM (1971). Toward a rational classification of cultivated plants. Taxon 509-517.
Higgins VJ, Lu H, Xing T, Gelli A, Blumwald E (1998). The gene-for-gene concept and beyond: Interactions and signals. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology 20(2):150-157.
Hovmoller MS, Sorensen CK, Walter S, Justesen AF (2011). Diversity of Puccinia striiformis on cereals and grasses. Annual Review of Phytopathology 49:197-217.
Hovmøller MS, Walter S, Bayles RA, Hubbard A, Flath K, Sommerfeldt N, Thach T (2016). Replacement of the European wheat yellow rust population by new races from the centre of diversity in the nearâ€Himalayan region. Plant Pathology 65(3):402-411.
Huang C, Sun Z, Wang H, Luo Y, Ma Z (2012). Effects of wheat cultivar mixtures on stripe rust: A meta-analysis on field trials. Crop Protection 33:52-58.
Hysing S-C (2007). Genetic resources for disease resistance breeding in wheat. PhD thesis, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, , Alnarp,.
Jin Y, Szabo LJ, Carson M (2010). Century-old mystery of Puccinia striiformis life history solved with the identification of Berberis as an alternate host. Phytopathology 100(5):432-435.
Juroszek P, von Tiedemann A (2013). Climate change and potential future risks through wheat diseases: a review. European Journal of Plant Pathology 136(1):21-33.
Kaur S, Dhaliwal L, Kaur P (2008). Impact of climate change on wheat disease scenario in Punjab. Journal of Research 45(3-4):161-170.
Knott D (2008). The genomics of stem rust resistance in wheat. Plant Sciences Department, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, S7N 5A8, Canada.
Kumar S, Kumari J, Bansal R, Kuri B, Singh AK, Wankhede D, Akhtar J,Khan Z (2015). Slow rusting-an effective way to achieve durable resistance against leaf rust in wheat. Wheat Information Service 120:26.
Leff B, Ramankutty N, Foley JA (2004). Geographic distribution of major crops across the world. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 18(1).
Line RF (2002). Stripe rust of wheat and barley in North America: a retrospective historical review. Annual Review in Phytopathology 40:75-118.
Liu B, Chen X, Kang Z (2012). Gene sequences reveal heterokaryotic variations and evolutionary mechanisms in Puccinia striiformis, the stripe rust pathogen. Open Journal of Genomics 1(1).
Longin CFH, Reif JC (2014). Redesigning the exploitation of wheat genetic resources. Trends in Plant Science 19(10):631-636.
Ma Q, Shang H (2009). Ultrastructure of stripe rust (Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici) interacting with slow-rusting, highly resistant, and susceptible wheat cultivars. Journal of Plant Pathology 1:597-606.
Mallard S, Gaudet D, Aldeia A, Abelard C, Besnard A, Sourdille P, Dedryver F (2005). Genetic analysis of durable resistance to yellow rust in bread wheat. Theoretical and Applied Genetics 110(8):1401-1409.
Markell S, Milus E (2008). Emergence of a novel population of Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici in eastern United States. Phytopathology 98(6):632-639.
McDonald BA, Linde C (2002). Pathogen population genetics, evolutionary potential, and durable resistance. Annual Review of Phytopathology 40(1):349-379.
McIntoshA R (2009). History and status of the wheat rusts. Paper presented at the Proceedings of the 2009 Technical Workshop Borlaug Global Rust Initiative, Cd. Obregon, Sonora, Mexico, March.
McIntosh R, Dubcovsky J, Rogers JW, Morris C, Appels R, Xia X (2010). Catalogue of gene symbols for wheat: 2011 Supplement. Annual Wheat Newsletter 57.
Mert Z, Nazari K, Karagöz E, Akan K, Öztürk İ, Tülek A (2016). First incursion of the warrior race of wheat stripe rust (Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici) to Turkey in 2014. Plant Diseases 100(2):528.
Moldenhauer J, Moerschbacher B, Van der Westhuizen A (2006). Histological investigation of stripe rust (Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici) development in resistant and susceptible wheat cultivars. Plant Pathology 55(4):469-474.
Morgounov A, Yessimbekova M, Rsaliev S, Baboev S, Mumindjanov H, Djunusova M (2004). High-yielding winter wheat varieties resistant to yellow and leaf rust in Central Asia. Paper presented at the Proceedings of the 11th International Cereal Rusts and Powdery Mildews Conference.
Mrabet R (2000). Differential response of wheat to tillage management systems in a semiarid area of Morocco. Field Crops Research 66(2):165-174.
Peng JH, Sun DNevo E (2011). Domestication evolution, genetics and genomics in wheat. Molecular Breeding 28(3):281.
Pratap A, Kumar J (2014). Alien gene transfer in crop plants, Volume 2: Achievements and Impacts (Vol. 2), Springer Science & Business Media.
Pretorius Z (2004). The impact of wheat stripe rust in South Africa. Paper presented at the Proceedings of the 11th International Cereal Rusts and Powdery Mildews Conference.
Rajaram S, Borlaug N, Van Ginkel M (2002). CIMMYT international wheat breeding. Bread wheat improvement and production. FAO, Rome 103-117.
Roelfs AP (1992). Rust diseases of wheat: concepts and methods of disease management. Cimmyt.
RustTracker (2011). RustTracker.org. Retrieved 2018 April 15 from. http://rusttracker.cimmyt.org/?page_id=9
Saari EE, Prescott J (1985). World distribution in relation to economic losses. In: Diseases, Distribution, Epidemiology, and Control pp 259-298.
Sanders R (2018). Strategies to reduce the emerging wheat stripe rust disease.
Schwessinger B (2017). Fundamental wheat stripe rust research in the 21st century. New Phytologist 213(4):1625-1631.
Sharma I (2012). Disease resistance in wheat. India, Cabi.
Sharma R, Nazari K, Amanov A, Ziyaev Z, Jalilov A (2016). Reduction of winter wheat yield losses caused by stripe rust through fungicide management. Journal of Phytopathology 164:671-677.
Shiferaw B, Prasanna BM, Hellin JBänziger M (2011). Crops that feed the world 6. Past successes and future challenges to the role played by maize in global food security. Food Security 3(3):307.
Siad SM, Gioia A, Hoogenboom G, Iacobellis V, Novelli A, Tarantino E, Zdruli P (2017). Durum wheat cover analysis in the scope of policy and market price changes: A case study in Southern Italy. Agriculture 7(2):12.
Singh R, Mahmoudpour A, Rajkumar M, Narayana R (2017). A review on stripe rust of wheat, its spread, identification and management at field level. Research on Crops 18(3):528-533.
Singh RP, William HM, Huerta-Espino JRosewarne G (2004). Wheat rust in Asia: meeting the challenges with old and new technologies. Paper presented at the proceedings of the 4th International Crop Science Congress, Brisbane, Australia.
Solh M, Nazari K, Tadesse W, Wellings C (2012). The growing threat of stripe rust worldwide. Paper presented at the Proceedings, Borlaug Global Rust Initiative, 2012 Technical Workshop, September 1-4, Beijing, China, Oral presentations.
Sørensen CK (2012). Infection biology and aggressiveness of Puccinia striiformis on resistant and susceptible wheat. PhD Thesis University of Aarhus., Denmark, Nordre Ringgade, Aarhus.
Surico G (2013). The concepts of plant pathogenicity, virulence/avirulence and effector proteins by a teacher of plant pathology. Phytopathologia Mediterranea 399-417.
Thach T, Ali S, de Vallavieille-Pope C, Justesen AF, Hovmøller MS (2016). Worldwide population structure of the wheat rust fungus Puccinia striiformis in the past. Fungal Genetics and Biology 87:1-8.
USDA (2014). United States Department of Agriculture. Retrieved 2018 March 23 from https: //www. fas. usda. Gov /data/worldagricultural-production.
USDA (2017). United States Department of Agriculture. Retrieved 2018 March 31 from https: //gain. fas.usda .gov/ Recent% 20GAIN20Publications/Grain%20and%20Feed%20Annual_Rabat_Morocco_4-14-2017.pdf.
Van der Plank J (1969). Pathogenic races, host resistance, and an analysis of pathogenicity. Netherlands Journal of Plant Pathology 75(1-2):45-52.
Viljanen-Rollinson S, Marroni M, Butler R (2006). Wheat stripe rust control using fungicides in New Zealand. New Zealand Plant Protection 59:155-159.
Wan A, Chen X, He Z (2007). Wheat stripe rust in China. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 58(6):605-619.
Wan A, Wang X, Kang Z, Chen X (2017). Variability of the stripe rust pathogen. In: Stripe Rust, Springer pp 35-154.
Wan A, Zhao Z, Chen X, He Z, Jin S, Jia Q, Li G (2004). Wheat stripe rust epidemic and virulence of Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici in China in 2002. Plant Disease 88(8):896-904.
Wang MN, Chen X (2013). First report of Oregon grape (Mahonia aquifolium) as an alternate host for the wheat stripe rust pathogen (Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici) under artificial inoculation. Plant Disease 97(6):839-839.
Waqar A, Khattak SH, Begum S, Rehman T, Shehzad A, Ajmal W, Ali GM (2018). Stripe rust: A review of the disease, Yr genes and its molecular markers. Sarhad Journal of Agriculture 34(1).
Webb CA, Fellers JP (2006). Cereal rust fungi genomics and the pursuit of virulence and avirulence factors. FEMS Microbiology Letters 264(1):1-7.
Wellings C (2011). Global status of stripe rust: a review of historical and current threats. Euphytica 179(1):129-141.
Wellings C, Kandel K (2004). Pathogen dynamics associated with historic stripe (yellow) rust epidemics in Australia in 2002 and 2003. Paper presented at the Proceedings of the 11th international cereal rusts and powdery mildews conference.
Wellings C, McIntosh R, Walker J (1987). Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici in Eastern Australia possible means of entry and implications for plant quarantine. Plant Pathology 36(3):239-241.
Wolfe M (1985). The current status and prospects of multiline cultivars and variety mixtures for disease resistance. Annual Review of Phytopathology 23(1):251-273.
Yadav MK, Aravindan S, Ngangkham U, Shubudhi H, Bag MK, Adak T, Munda S, Samantaray S, Jena M (2017). Use of molecular markers in identification and characterization of resistance to rice blast in India. PloS One 12(4): e0176236.
Zheng W, Huang L, Huang J, Wang X, Chen X, Zhao J, Kang Z (2013). High genome heterozygosity and endemic genetic recombination in the wheat stripe rust fungus. Nature Communications 4:2673.
How to Cite
Papers published in Notulae Scientia Biologicae are Open-Access, distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution License.
© Articles by the authors; licensee SMTCT, Cluj-Napoca, Romania. The journal allows the author(s) to hold the copyright/to retain publishing rights without restriction.
Open Access Journal - the journal offers free, immediate, and unrestricted access to peer-reviewed research and scholarly work, due SMTCT supports to increase the visibility, accessibility and reputation of the researchers, regardless of geography and their budgets. Users are allowed to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of the articles, or use them for any other lawful purpose, without asking prior permission from the publisher or the author.