Incidence of Common and Rare Cancers in Ilorin, Nigeria
Cancer is a public health problem worldwide, affecting all categories of persons. It is the second common cause of death in developed countries and among the three leading causes of death in developing countries. Due to its genetics and medical importance, study on its incidence is germane. In the present study, 74 different cancers of 2,246 (n = 891 male and n = 1355 female) cancer patients within the age of 1-105 in Nigeria were retrospectively reviewed using the data from University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital (UITH). The overall profile of the categories showed the leading position of breast cancer, followed by cancer of the digestive system (32.29% and 19.67%, respectively), while Kaposi sarcoma, endocrine system and brain cancers were among the rare or least recorded (<1.0% incidence rate). Furthermore, the trend showed a high prevalence during 2011 and 2015 (>13% and >11%) than any other year within the study, while the lowest incidence was recorded in 2016 (<6%). Predisposing factors like tumorigenesis, immune system, biological stressors as well as gene-environment interaction and low life expectancy could influence the risk of different groups of cancer. Therefore, future investigations should be targeted on risk factors related to those considered rare so as to provide useful information about possible signs and symptoms for diagnosis before it escalate.
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