Food Habits and Diet Relationship in the Redbelly Tilapia (Tilapia zillii) and Guenther’s Mouthbrooder (Chromidotilapia guntheri) from an Abandoned Gold Mine Reservoir, Southwestern Nigeria

  • Olusola Olaniyi KOMOLAFE Obafemi Awolowo University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Ile-Ife (NG)
  • Timothy Olalekan AMOO Obafemi Awolowo University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Ile-Ife (NG)
  • Michael Olufemi AWODIRAN Obafemi Awolowo University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Ile-Ife (NG)
Keywords: competition; diet overlap; fishes; freshwater; food items; food preference

Abstract

The food and feeding habits of the redbelly Tilapia (Tilapia zillii) and Guenther’s mouthbrooder (Chromidotilapia guntheri) were investigated in an abandoned gold mine reservoir at Igun from June 2013 to May 2014. Using a cast net and gill-net fishing gears, 370 fish individuals were caught and their stomach contents were analysed by using the frequency of occurrence and numerical methods. Tilapia zillii comprised 53.78% (199 individuals), while Chromidotilapia guntheri covered up the remaining percentage (46.22%) which is made up of 171 individuals. Food items in the stomachs of T. zillii individuals predominantly consisted of detritus, mud and algae (77.97%), while those in C. guntheri individuals mostly consisted fish remains, detritus and algae (81.67%). T. zillii exploited more food items (23 of 27) as compared to C. guntheri (17 of 27). The Schoener’s index value for the species was 0.65. The study showed that T. zillii and C. guntheri exhibited benthopelagic exploitation and are mainly herbivorous and omnivorous respectively based on the food items observed in the stomach contents of these species. The fish species fed on related food items as confirmed by Schoener’s overlap index (0.65), suggesting that there was overlap in the dietary requirements of the two species. This index value, however, was probably not an indication of competition for food between these two species because they exploited abundant food sources.

Metrics

Metrics Loading ...

References

Abayomi O, Arawomo G, Komolafe O (2005). Distribution, food and feeding habits of a catfish, C. gariepinus (Burchell 1822) in Opa Reservoir, Ile Ife, Nigeria. Science Focus 10(1):62-67.

Abdul W, Omoniyi I, Agbon A, Adeosun F, Olowe O, Adekoya E (2016). Food and feeding habits of some fish species in Ogun State coastal estuary, Ogun State, Nigeria. Journal of Agricultural Science and Environment 16(1):61-74.

Adebisi A (1981). Analyses of the stomach contents of the piscivorous fishes of the upper Ogun River in Nigeria. Hydrobiologia 79(2):167-177.

Adesulu E (2007). The freshwater fishes and fisheries of Nigeria. Macmillan Nigeria Publishers Limited.

Adesulu EA, Sydenham DHJ (2007). The freshwater fishes and fisheries of Nigeria, Macmillan Nigeria Publishers Limited, Ibadan.

Akintunde E (1976). The biology of Tilapia and Sarotherodon spp. Lake Kainiji, Nigeria, with special reference to Sarotherodon galilaeus. M. Phil Thesis. University of Ife, Nigeria.

Arawomo G (1976). Food and feeding of three Citharinus species in Lake Kainji, Nigeria. Journal of Fish Biology 9(1):3-10.

Armstrong MP, Musick JA, Colvocoresses JA (1996). Food and ontogenetic shifts in feeding of the goosefish, Lophius americanus. Journal of Northwest Atlantic Fishery Science 18:99-103.

Baijot E, Moreau J (1997). Biology and demographic status of the main fish species in the reservoirs of Burkina Faso. Hydrobiological aspects of fisheries in small reservoirs in the Sahel region. Technical Center for Agricultural and Rural Cooperation ACP-EU, Wageningen, Netherlands, pp 79-110.

Blay J (1985). Observations on the balance in fish populations in a small reservoir in Ghana. Fisheries Research 3:1-11.

Bowen S (1982). Feeding, digestion and growth-qualitative considerations. In International Conference on the Biology and Culture of Tilapias, Bellagio (Italy) 7:141-156.

Brown C (1985). The food and feeding relationship of non cichlid fishes of Ikpoba River, downstream of the dam, MSc Thesis, University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria.

Brown JA, Colgan PW (1984). The ontogeny of feeding behaviour in four species of centrarchid fish. Behavioural Processes 9(4):395-411.

Cailliet G, Barry J (1979). Comparison of food array overlap measures useful in fish feeding habit analysis."Gutshop 78:67-79.

Cartes J, Sardà F (1989). Feeding ecology of the deep-water aristeid crustacean Aristeus antennatus. Marine Ecology Progress Series. Oldendorf 54(3):229-238.

Cody ML (1974). Competition and the structure of bird communities, Princeton University Press.

Cortés E (1997). A critical review of methods of studying fish feeding based on analysis of stomach contents: application to elasmobranch fishes. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 54(3):726-738.

Costa J, Assis C, Almeida P, Moreira F, Costa M (1992). On the food of the European eel, Anguilla anguilla (L.), in the upper zone of the Tagus estuary, Portugal. Journal of Fish Biology 41(5):841-850.

Crozier W (1985). Observations on the food and feeding of the anglerâ€fish, Lophim piscatorius L., in the northern Irish Sea. Journal of Fish Biology 27(5):655-665.

Dávalos E, Gónzalez E (2003). Stomach content of one pelagic ray Dasyatis violacea (Bonaparte, 1832)(Rajiformes: Dasyatidae) from the Gulf of California, México.

Ekpo IE, Ibok-Essien M, Nkwoji JN (2014). Food and feeding habits and condition factor of fish species in Qua Iboe River estuary, Akwa Ibom State, southeastern Nigeria. Int. Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Studies 2(2):38-46.

Fagade S (1971). The food and feeding habits of Tilapia species in the Lagos lagoon. Journal of Fish Biology 3(2):151-156.

Fagade SO, Olaniyan CIO (1973). The food and feeding interrelationship of the fishes in the Lagos lagoon. Journal of Fish Biology 5(2):205-225.

Fryer G, Iles TD (1972). Cichlid fishes of the great lakes of Africa, their biology and distribution. Oliver and Boyd, Edinburgh.

Horn HS (1966). Measurement of "overlap" in comparative ecological studies. The American Naturalist 100(914):419-424.

Hurlbert S (1978). Results of five flamingo censuses conducted between November 1975 and December 1977. Andean Lake and Flamingo Investigations, San Diego State Univ, California, Tech. Rept.

Hurlbert SH (1978). The measurement of niche overlap and some relatives. Ecology 59(1):67-77.

Hutchinson GE (1965). The ecological theatre and the evolutionary play, Yale University Press.

Hynes H (1950). The food of fresh-water sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus and Pygosteus pungitius), with a review of methods used in studies of the food of fishes. The Journal of Animal Ecology 36-58.

Hyslop E (1980). Stomach contents analysis - a review of methods and their application. Journal of Fish Biology 17(4):411-429.

Ibáñez CM, González C, Cubillos L (2004). Dieta del pez espada Xiphias gladius Linnaeus, 1758, en aguas oceánicas de Chile central en invierno de 2003. Investigaciones marinas 32(2):113-120.

Ifedayo A (2006). Food and feeding habits of fishes inhabiting Osinmo reservoir, Ejigbo Local Government Area. Osun State, Nigeria. B.Sc. diss., Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife.

Imevbore A, Bakare O (1970). The food and feeding habits of non-cichlid fishes of the River Niger in the Kainji Reservoir area. Kainji Lake Studies 1:49-64.

Jobling M (1995). Fish bioenergetics. Oceanographic Literature Review 9(42):785.

Joyce W, Campana S, Natanson L, Kohler N, Pratt H, Jensen C (2002). Analysis of stomach contents of the porbeagle shark (Lamna nasus Bonnaterre) in the northwest Atlantic. ICES Journal of Marine Science: Journal du Conseil 59(6):1263-1269.

Keast A (1978). Trophic and spatial interrelationships in the fish species of an Ontario temperate lake. Environmental Biology of Fishes 3(1):7-31.

Komolafe O (1984). The biology of the Cichlid Fish Tilapia zillii (Gervais) in Opa reservoir Obafemi Awolowo University, Nigeria. MSc. Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife.

Komolafe OO, Arawomo GO (2011). Food and diet relationships of Parachanna obscura (Gunther) and Clarias gariepinus (Burchell) in a newly impounded Osinmo reservoir, Ejigbo, Nigeria. Cameroon Journal of Experimental Biology 7(1):9-15.

Langton R (1982). Diet overlap between Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua, silver hake, Merluccius bilinearis, and fifteen other northwest Atlantic finfish [Fish predators]. Fishery Bulletin United States, National Marine Fisheries Service.

Lindström T, Nilsson N-A (1962). On the competition between whitefish species. In: Holdgate MW (Ed), The exploitation of natural animal populations pp 326-340.

Linton L, Davies RW, Wrona F (1981). Resource utilization indices: an assessment. The Journal of Animal Ecology 1:283-292.

Mathur D (1977). Food habits and competitive relationships of the bandfin shiner in Halawakee Creek, Alabama. American Midland Naturalist 89-100.

Oboh IP, Edema CU, Tongo O-L (2003). The food and feeding habits of fishes of the Jamieson River, Nigeria. Pakistan Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research 46(4):255-260.

Odum O (1992). The ecology and biology of the fishes of Ethiope River, Nigeria. PhD Thesis, University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria.

Olatunde AA (1979). The food and feeding habits of Physalia pellucida and Schilbe mystus with notes on the diets of S. uranoscopus and Siluranodon auritus, family Schilbeidae (Osteichthyes: Siluriformes) in Lake Kainji, Nigeria. Freshwater Biology 9(3):183-190.

Olayemi A (2000). Food and feeding habits of fishes in Owalla reservoir, Osun State, Nigeria. MSc. diss., Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife.

Oribhabor B, Ogbeibu A (2012). The food and feeding habits of fish species assemblage in a Niger Delta Mangrove Creek, Nigeria. Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science 7(2):134.

Paugy D, Lévêque C, Teugels GG (2003). The fresh and brackish water fishes of West Africa.

Preciado I, Velasco F, Olaso I, Landa J (2006). Feeding ecology of black anglerfish Lophius budegassa: seasonal, bathymetric and ontogenetic shifts. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 86(04):877-884.

Schoener TW (1970). Nonsynchronous spatial overlap of lizards in patchy habitats. Ecology 51(3):408-418.

Schoener TW (1974). Resource partitioning in ecological communities. Science 185(4145):27-39.

Sirois P, Boisclair D (1995). The influence of prey biomass on activity and consumption rates of brook trout. Journal of Fish Biology 46(5):787-805.

Spataru P (1978). Food and feeding habits of Tilapia zillii (Gervais)(Cichlidae) in Lake Kinneret (Israel). Aquaculture 14(4):327-338.

Taiwo YF (2008). The taxonomy and some ecological aspects of fishes in two reservoirs in Osun State, Nigeria, PhD Thesis, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife.

Tetsola E (1988). Distribution and feeding relationship of the fishes in Warri Rivers, Nigeria, PhD. Thesis, University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria.

Trewavas E (1982). Tilapia: taxonomy and speciation [in Africa]. International Conference on the Biology and Culture of Tilapias, Bellagio (Italy), 2-5 Sep 1980.

Valeila I (1991). Fundamentals of aquatic ecology. London, Longman Group.

Wallace Jr RK (1981). An assessment of diet-overlap indexes. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 110(1):72-76.

Walter RJ, Williams JD (2004). US Geological Survey Circular, 1251.

Wańkowski J, Thorpe J (1979). Spatial distribution and feeding in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L. juveniles. Journal of Fish Biology 14(3):239-247.

Yang M, Livingstone PA (1986). Food habits and diet overlap of two congeneric species, Atheresthes stomias and Atheresthes evermanni, in the eastern Bering Sea. Fishery Bulletin 82(3):615-623.

Zaret TM, Rand AS (1971). Competition in tropical stream fishes: support for the competitive exclusion principle. Ecology 52(2):336-342.

Published
2018-06-29
How to Cite
KOMOLAFE, O. O., AMOO, T. O., & AWODIRAN, M. O. (2018). Food Habits and Diet Relationship in the Redbelly Tilapia (Tilapia zillii) and Guenther’s Mouthbrooder (Chromidotilapia guntheri) from an Abandoned Gold Mine Reservoir, Southwestern Nigeria. Notulae Scientia Biologicae, 10(2), 148-155. https://doi.org/10.15835/nsb10210254
Section
Research articles
CITATION
DOI: 10.15835/nsb10210254