Effects of Growth Regulators and Type-Variety of Oil Palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) on Direct Organogenesis


  • Chibuzo Nwabueze Chikezie NWAOGUALA University of Benin, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Crop Science, Ugbowo Campus, P.M.B. 1154 Benin City, Edo State (NG)
  • Hakeem Olalekan SHITTU University of Benin, Faculty of Life Sciences, Department of Plant Biology and Biotechnology, P.M.B. 1154 Benin City, Edo State (NG)




dormancy; embryo; embryogenesis; germination; in vitro; seed


The in vitro organogenesis of embryos of type-variety (‘Albescens’, ‘Nigrescens’, ‘Virescens’ and ‘Idolatrica’) of the oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) with growth regulators was studied. Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium, supplemented with nine treatment concentrations of Naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) and 6-Benzylaminopurine (BAP), alone and in combinations, was used to initiate embryo cultures of the type-variety. Data were collected on time of root production, root length, plant height, number of leaves and number of roots.  The results obtained indicated that there were swelling and expansion of the matured zygotic explants in cultures within 7 and 14 days after culture initiation (DCI). Time of root production did not vary significantly among type-variety, but differed significantly (p < 0.001) due to growth regulators, whereas their interaction effect was non-significant. Root length and plantlet height significantly varied (p < 0.05) due to type-variety and growth regulators, as well as their interaction. There were no significant variations among type-variety on number of leaves and roots produced at 84 DCI, but there was significant (p < 0.05) variations on number of leaves and non-significant variance on number of roots due to growth regulators. The type-variety combined with growth regulators effects on number of leaves and roots were not significant.  In the present study, the responses of the various type-variety in the regeneration of plantlets in vitro varied with respect to media supplementation and that low concentration of NAA and BAP, alone and in different combinations, favoured root, leaf and plantlet production in MS medium.


Metrics Loading ...

Author Biography

Hakeem Olalekan SHITTU, University of Benin, Faculty of Life Sciences, Department of Plant Biology and Biotechnology, P.M.B. 1154 Benin City, Edo State



Bailey AE (1933). Industrial oil and fat products. Interscience Publishers Inc, New York 427:153-170.

Caldas LS, Haridasan P, Ferreira ME (1990). Meios nutritivos. In: Torres AC, Caldas LS (Eds). Técnicas e aplicações da cultura de tecidos de plantas. Brasília: ABCTP/Embrapa-CNPH pp37-70.

Corley HV, Tinker PB (2003). The oil palm (4th ed). Blackwell Publishing Company, UK.

Dixon RA (1985). Plant cell culture: A practical approach. IRL Press Ltd, Oxford.

Ezeibekwe IO, Ezenwaka CL, Mbagwu FN, Unamba CIN (2009). Effects of combination of different levels of auxin (NAA) and cytokinin (BAP) on in vitro propagation of Dioscorea Rotundata L. (White Yam). New York Science Journal 2(5):1-8.

Gantait S, Mandal N, Bhattacharyya S, Das PK (2008). In vitro mass multiplication with pure genetic identity in Anthurium andreanum Lind. Plant Tissue Culture and Biotechnology 18:113-122.

Hussain A, Naz S, Nazir H, Shinwari ZK (2011). Tissue culture of black pepper (Piper nigrum L.) in Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Botany 43(2):1069-1078.

Lakshmi S, Bammi RK, Randawa GS (2006). Clonal propagation of Dioscorea floribunda by tissue culture. Journal of Horticultural Science 51:551-554.

Mgbeze GC, Iserhienrhien A (2013). Somaclonal variation associated with oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) clonal propagation. African Journals of Biotechnology 120:20-26.

Murashige T, Skoog F (1962). A revised medium for rapid growth and bioassays with tobacco tissue cultures. Physiologia Plantarum 15:473-497.

Ndon BA (2006). The oil palm. Concept Publication Limited, Lagos, Nigeria.

Nwankwo BA, Krikorian AD (1983). Morphogenetic potential of embryo and seedling derived callus of Elaeis guineensis Jacq. variety. ‘pisifera’ Becc. Annals of Botany 51:65-76.

Odenore VD, Eke CR, Asemota O, Shittu HO (2015). Determination of phylogenetic relationship among oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) varieties with random amplified polymorphic DNA. European International Journal of Science and Technology 4(2):155-160.

Odewale JO (1983). Development of tissue culture techniques and callus induction in the Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) anthers. PhD Thesis, University of Ife, Nigeria.

Opeke LK (1992). Tropical tree crops. Spectrum Books Limited, Jersey, UK.

Periasamy S, Uma RS, Subramaniam S, Maheran AA, Nordin R, Gantait S (2003). Effect of plant growth regulators and activated charcoal on in vitro growth and development of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. var. ‘Dura’) zygotic. African Journals of Biotechnology 10:82-90.

Pierik RIM (1984). In vitro culture of higher plants: International course on applied plant breeding. International Agricultural Centre, Wageningen, The Netherlands.

Purkayastha J, Sugla T, Paul A, Solleti SK, Mazumdar P, Basu A, Mohommad A, Ahmed Z, Sahoo L (2010). Efï¬cient in vitro plant regeneration from shoot apices and gene transfer by particle bombardment in Jatropha curcas. Biologia Plantarum 54(1):13-20.

Rival AR (2000). Some factors affecting the viability of oil palm seeds in storage. Journal of the Nigerian Institute for Oil Palm Research 4:317-323.

Seng TY, Faridah QZ, Ho CL, Maizura I, Vengeta R (2007). Flanking AFLP markers for the virescens trait in oil palm: Journal of Oil Palm Research 19:381-392.

Shittu HO, Mgbeze GC (2012). In vitro responses of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis, Jacq) embryo axes culture. African Scientist 13:127-133.

Shittu HO, Mgbeze GC, Okoloko GE, Asemota EO, Eke CR (2013). In vitro assessment of embryo age and Naphthalene acetic acid supplementation of media in callus generation of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq). Nigerian Journal of Life Sciences 3(1):178-185.

Shittu HO, Mgbeze GC, Eke CR, Asemota O (2015). Explant age, auxin concentrations and media type affect callus production from oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) embryo axes. NISEB Journal 15(2):38-43.

Shrivastava S, Banerjee M (2008). In vitro clonal propagation of physic nut (Jatropha curcas L.): Influence of additives. International Journal of Integrative of Biology 3:73-79.

Thawaro S, Te-chato S (2010). Auxins as an effective type of callus formation for mature zygotic embryo culture of hybrid oil palms. International Conference on Integration of Science and Technology for Sustainable Development, Bangkok pp 246-250.

Trejgell A, Tretyn A, Nicos D (1998). Attempt at regeneration of Pharbitis nil from fragments of vegetative organs. Physiologia Plantarum 20:161-166.




How to Cite

NWAOGUALA, C. N. C., & SHITTU, H. O. (2018). Effects of Growth Regulators and Type-Variety of Oil Palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) on Direct Organogenesis. Notulae Scientia Biologicae, 10(2), 251–258. https://doi.org/10.15835/nsb10210234



Research articles
DOI: 10.15835/nsb10210234