Influence of Poultry Manure Rates and Spacing on Growth, Yield, Nutrient Concentration , Uptake and Proximate Composition of Onion (Allium cepa L.)
Plant spacing determines to a greater extent crop performance in terms of growth and yield. The production of crop with organic fertilizer also plays a vital role in organic agriculture. Field studies were conducted to evaluate the effects of spacing and poultry manure on the growth, yield and quality of onion. Three spacing regimes were carried out consisting of (15cm x 15 cm , 20 cm x 20 cm and 25 cm x 25 cm) and four levels of poultry manure at ( 0, 5, 10 and 15 t /ha ). The effects of spacing and poultry manure were evaluated for 2 years based on plant growth, yield, nutrient concentration, uptake and proximate composition of onion plant. Leaf thickness, bulb and shoot fresh weights were significantly increased by the wider spacing of 20 cm x 20 cm and 25 cm x 25 cm, compared with the narrower spacing of 15cm x 15 cm in both seasons. However, highest total dry yield (1.82 and 1.58) t /ha, shoot yield (2.31 and 1.32) t /ha and total fresh yield (13.69 and 12.55) t/ha were obtained with the spacing of 20cm x 20 cm in both years. Similarly, application of poultry manure increased leaf thickness, bulb and shoot fresh weights and yields compared with the control. Generally, using 10 t/ha poultry manure has a superior effect on proximate composition and most of growth parameters and yield components achieved the highest nutrient concentrations and uptake on most of the macro and micronutrients in leaves and bulbs as compared with the control in both years.
Adekiya AO, Agbede TM (2009). Growth and yield of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill) as influenced by poultry manure and NPK fertilizer. Journal of Food and Agriculture 21(1):10-20.
Adenawoola AR, Adejoro SA (2005). Residual effects of poultry manure and NPK fertilizer residues on soil nutrient and performance of Jute (Corchorus olitorius L.). Nigerian Journal of soil science 15:133-135.
Aisha AH, Rizk FA, Shaheen AM, Abdel Mouty MM (2007). Onion plant growth, bulbs yield and its physical and chemical properties as affected by organic and natural fertilizers. Research Journal of Agricultural and Biological Sciences 3(5):380-388.
Akinfasoye JA, Akanbi WB (2005 ). Effect of organic fertilizer and spacing on growth and yield of celosia (Celosia argentea L.). Proceedings 23rd HORTSON Conference, Port Harcourt September.
Aliyu L, Kuchinda NC ( 2002). Analysis of the chemical composition of some organic manures and their effect on the yield and composition of pepper (Capsium annum L). Crop Research 23(2):362-368.
Aliyu U, Dikko AU, Magaji MD, Singh A (2008). Nitrogen and intrarow spacing effect on onion (Allium cepa L.). Journal of Plant Science 3:188-193.
Arisha HME, Gad AA, Younes SE (2003). Response of some pepper cultivars to organic and mineral nitrogen fertilizer under sandy soil conditions. Zagazig Journal of Agricultural Research 30:1875-1899.
Awodun MA (2007). Effect of poultry manure on growth, yield and nutrient content of fluted pumpkin (Telfaira occidentalis Hooks F). Asian Journal of Agricultural Research 1:67-73.
Baloch AW, Soomro AM, Javed MA, Ahmed M, Bughio HR, Bughio MS, Mastoi NN (2002). Optimum plant density for high yield in rice (Oryza sativa L.). Asian Journal of Plant Science 1:25-27.
Barker AV, Bryson GM (2006). Comparison of composts with low or high nutrient status for growth of plants in containers. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis 37:1303-1319.
Boyhan GE, Torrance RL, Hill CR (2007). Effects of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium rates and fertilizer sources on yield and leaf nutrient status of short-day onions. HortScience 42:653-660.
Bray RH, Kurtz LT (1945). Determination of total organic and available forms of P in soils. Soil Science 59:39- 45.
Brewster JL, Butler HA (1994). Effects of nitrogen supply on bulb development in onions(Allium cepa L.). Journal of Experimental Botany 40:1155-1162.
Chen SH, Hammond LL (1988). Agronomic evaluation of partially acidulated phosphate rocks in the tropics. IFDCâ€™s experience. IFDC 7:10.
Colla G, Mitchell J, Poudel D, Temple S (2002). Changes of tomatoes yield and fruit elemental composition in conventional, low input, and organic systems. Journal of Sustainable Agriculture 20(2):53-67.
Ehigiator JO (1998). Farmyard manure needs for its adoption as an alternative to chemical fertilizers uses in Nigeria. Nigerian Journal of Horticultural Science 3:19-24.
Hussaini MA, Amans EB, Ramalan AA (2000). Yield bulb size distribution and storability of onion (Allium cepa L.) under Different levels of N fertilization and irrigation regime. Tropical Agriculture (Trinidad) 77(3):145-49.
Jackson ML (1969). Soil Chemical Analysis. Constable and Co Ltd, London, U.K.
Jeyathilake PKS, Reddy IP, Srihari D, Reddy KR (2006). Productivity and soil fertility status as influenced integrated use of N-Fixing Biofertilizers, organic manures and inorganic fertilizers in onion. Journal of Agricultural Science 2(1):46-58.
Khan HM, Igbal AG, Waseem K (2002). Effect of various plant spacing and different level of fertilizers on the growth and yield of onion (Allium cepa L.) Journal of Biological Sciences 2:545-547.
Khushk AM, Miano NM, Ansari AH (1992). Influence of inter and intra raw spacing on the yield and yield components of onion (Allium cepa L.). Horticultural Abstracts 62:230-237.
Lombin LG, Adepelu JA, Ayotade BO (1991). Organic fertilizer in the Nigeria Agriculture. Proceeding of National Fertilizer Seminar, Kaduna, Nigeria. March 26-27 pp 5-13.
Maurya RP, Bailey JA, Chandler JSA (2013). Impact of plant spacing and picking interval on the growth, fruit quality and yield of okra. American Journal of Agriculture and Forestry 1(4):48-54.
Murphy J, Riley JP (1962). Modified single solution methods for determination of phosphorus in natural water. Analytical Chemistry Acta 27:31-36.
Mortley DG, Rhoden EG, Khan VA (1992). Plant spacing influences yield of vegetable amaranth. Acta Horticulturae 318:217-224.
NIHORT (1986). Advances in fruit and vegetable research at the National Horticultural Research Institute, Ibadan, Nigeria (NIHORT) (1976 -1986). A commemorative publication to mark the 10th anniversary of the institute.
Olaniyan AA, Fagbayide JA, Kolade JA (2002). Nursery performances of citrus scion varieties on commercial rootstocks in Ibadan, south western Nigeria. Nigerian Journal of Horticultural Science 8(1):12-19.
Olaniyi JO (2006). Influence of Nitrogen and Phosphorus fertilizers on seed yield and quality of Egusi melon (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb) Mansf) in Ogbomoso, Southwestern Nigeria. PhD Thesis, University of Ibadan, pp 57-155.
Pandey OP, Srivastava BK, Singh MP (1996). Effect of spacing and fertility levels on the growth, yield and economics of tomato hybrids. Vegetable Science 23:9-15.
Soumare M, Tack FGM, Verloo MG (2003) Characterisation of Malian and Belgian solid waste composts with respect to fertility and suitability for land application. Waste Management 23 (6):517-522.
Tijani-Eniola H, Nolaeyo NU, Aiyelari OP, Nwagwu, FA (2003). Influence of crop density and delayed weeding on the performance of soybean (Glycine max. (L) Merrill). Nigerian Journal of Horticultural Science 8:53-60.
Walkley J, Black JP (1962). A critical examination of a rapid method for determining organic carbon in soils. Effects of variation in digestion conditions and of organic carbon constituents. Soil Science 63:251-263.
William CN, TO, Peregine WTH (1991). Vegetable production in the tropics Longman Scientific Technical Group.
Distribution - Permissions - Copyright
Papers published in Notulae Scientia Biologicae are Open-Access, distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution License.
© Articles by the authors; licensee SHST, Cluj-Napoca, Romania. The journal allows the author(s) to hold the copyright/to retain publishing rights without restriction.
Open Access Journal - the journal offers free, immediate, and unrestricted access to peer-reviewed research and scholarly work, due SHST supports to increase the visibility, accessibility and reputation of the researchers, regardless of geography and their budgets. Users are allowed to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of the articles, or use them for any other lawful purpose, without asking prior permission from the publisher or the author.