Development of Male and Female Gametophyte in Symphytum orientale L. (Boraginaceae)
The presented study elucidates developmental features of male and female gametophyte in Symphytum orientale L. (Boraginaceae). Flower buds were collected from natural habitats (İstanbul-Turkey) in March-April. The anthers of S. orientale were tetrasporangiate with a persistent epidermis and its wall development conformed to the Dicotyledonous type. The endothecium developed fibrous wall thickenings. The middle layer was short-lived and the cells of the glandular tapetum became double nucleated. In the microspore mother cells cytokinesis originated simultaneously after meiosis and the microspore tetrads were tetrahedral or isobilateral. The mature pollen grains were 3-celled when spread to environment. The ovule was hemianatropous, unitegmic and tenuinucellar. The megaspore mother cell functioned directly from the archesporial cell. Polygonum type embryo sac developed from the chalazal megaspore of a linear tetrad generated after meiosis. The synergids were pyriform and the polar nuclei fused shortly before fertilization. The antipodal cells were large and persistent at the stage of globular embryo. Embryogenesis followed the Chenopodiad type and the endosperm represented cellular type. The detailed embryological data of Symphytum orientale L. (Boraginaceae), which is a herbaceous and perennial flowering plant will improve our knowledge of its reproductive behaviour, and provide to comprehend taxonomic connection with related taxa within the Symphytum/Boraginaceae.
Ahmad VU, Noorwala M, Mohammad FV, Sener B, Gilan AH, Aftab K (1993). Symphytoxide A, a triterpenoid saponin from the roots of Symphytum officinale. Phytochemistry 32:1003-1006.
Akçin ÖE, Baki H (2009). Fruit coat patterns and morphological properties of seven species of Symphytum L. (Boraginaceae) from Turkey. Bangladesh Journal of Botany 38:185-188.
Berg RY (2009). Embryo sac, endosperm, and seed of Nemophila (Boraginaceae) relative to taxonomy, with a remark on embryogeny in Pholistoma. American Journal of Botany 96:656-579.
Cohen JI (2013). A phylogenetic analysis of morphological and molecular characters of Boraginaceae: Evolutionary relationships, taxonomy, and patterns of character evolution. Cladistics 29:1-31.
Davis OL (1966). Systematic Embryology of the Angiosperms. John Wiley and Sons, NewYork.
Denisow B (2008). Flowers ecology and pollen output of Symphytum officinale L. Journal of Apicultural Science 52:81-89.
Gabarayeva N, Grigorjeva V, Polevova S (2011). Exine and tapetum development in Symphytum officinale (Boraginaceae). Exine substructure and its interpretation. Plant Systematics and Evolution 296:101-120.
Ghorbel S, Nabli MA (1998). Pollen, pistil and their interrelations in Borago officinalis and Heliotropum europaeum (Boraginaceae). Grana 37:203-2014.
Grant V (1981). Plant speciation. Columbia University Press, New York.
Khaleel TF (1978). Embryology of Heliotropium scabrum and H. strigosum (Boraginaceae). Plant Systematics and Evolution 129:45-62.
Khaleel TF (1982) Embryology of Cordia sebestena (Boraginaceae). Plant Systematics and Evolution 139:303-311.
Mohammed FV, Norwala M, Ahmad VU, Șener B (1995). A bidesmosidic hederagenin hexasaccharide from the roots of Symphytum officinale. Phytochemistry 40:213-218.
Montaner C, Floris E, Alvarez JM (2003). Study of pollen cytology and evaluation of pollen viability using in vivo and in vitro test, in borago (Borago officinalis L.). Grana 42 :33-37.
Pitot A (1937). Le development de l’ovule chez le Symphytum orientale L [Ovule development of Symphytum orientale L.]. Bulletin de la Societe Botanique de France 84:149-153.
Rao BH, Rao PSP (1992). Sporogenesis and gametogenesis of some Boraginaceae. Feddes Repertorium 103:35-40.
Stuessy TF (2009). Plant taxonomy: The systematic evaluation of comparative data. Columbia University Press, New York.
Tarıkahya-Hacıoğlu B, Erik S (2011). Phylogeny of Symphytum L. (Boraginaceae) with special emphasis on Turkish species. African Journal of Biotechnology 10:15483-15493.
Taylor ML, Osborn JM (2006). Pollen ontogeny in Brasenia (Cabombaceae, Nymphaeales). American Journal of Botany 93:344-356.
Tekșen M, Aytac Z (2011). The revision of the genus Fitillaria L. (Liliaceae) in the Mediterranean region (Turkey). Turkish Journal of Botany 35:447-478.
Ulubelen A, Doğanca S (1971). Alkaloidal and other constituents of Symphytum orientale. Phytochemistry 10:441-442.
Zarzycki K, TrzciÅ„ska-Tacik H, RóżaÅ„ski W, Szelag W, Wołek Z, Korzeniak U (2002). Ecological indicator values of vascular plants of Poland. Szafer Institute of Botany, Polish Academy of Science, Krakow, Poland.
Distribution - Permissions - Copyright
Papers published in Notulae Scientia Biologicae are Open-Access, distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution License.
© Articles by the authors; licensee SHST, Cluj-Napoca, Romania. The journal allows the author(s) to hold the copyright/to retain publishing rights without restriction.
Open Access Journal - the journal offers free, immediate, and unrestricted access to peer-reviewed research and scholarly work, due SHST supports to increase the visibility, accessibility and reputation of the researchers, regardless of geography and their budgets. Users are allowed to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of the articles, or use them for any other lawful purpose, without asking prior permission from the publisher or the author.