Agronomic Evaluation of New Varieties of Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) under Different Rates and Modes of NPK (12-12-17-2) Fertilizer Application in Two Seasons

  • Stella O. MUOJIAMA University of Nigeria, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Crop Science, Nsukka, Enugu State (NG)
  • Christian U. AGBO University of Nigeria, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Crop Science, Nsukka, Enugu State (NG)
  • Simon C. EZE University of Nigeria, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Crop Science, Nsukka, Enugu State (NG)
  • Charles U. UBA University of Nigeria, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Crop Science, Nsukka, Enugu State (NG)
Keywords: Cassava production; evaluation; fertilizer application; season; yield


A study was carried out at the Teaching and Research Farm of the Department of Crop Science, University of Nigeria, Nsukka to evaluate the growth and yield of four improved cassava varieties, determine their optimum NPK fertilizer rate and the best modes of fertilizer application for increased productivity. The experiment was factorial laid out in a randomized complete block design with three replications. Four varieties of cassava, four fertilizer rates and three modes of fertilizer application were used for the study. The early planting had higher survival count, number of leaves, tuber and garri yield when compared with late planting. The variety TMS 98 05 05 gave significantly (p< 0.05) higher number of leaves, tuber and garri yields of 39.8 and 9.68 t/ha, respectively, at 12 months. At 6 months of crop growth, 200 kg/ha fertilizer application rate gave significantly higher tuber and garri yield of 24.69 t/ha and 5.15 t/ha, respectively. Furthermore, 400 kg/ha of NPK fertilizer rate gave higher tuber and garri yields of 39.4 and 10.12 t/ha, respectively at 12 months of crop growth. Split application of fertilizer gave significantly higher tuber and garri yield from single application, though it is statistically similar to split-split application. Therefore, early planting, 400 kg/ha fertilizer rate and split application should be adopted for cassava production. The variety TMS 98 05 05 with higher growth and yield should also be adopted by farmers for cassava production in Nsukka derived savannah agro-ecology.


Metrics Loading ...


Aba A (2010). Nigeria’s quest for food security. Peoples Daily. Retrieved 2010 March 16, from http/ defaultaspx. A 25979 & template.

Adeniji OT, Odo PE, Ibrahim B (2011). Genetic relationship and selection indices for cassava root yield in Adamawa State, Nigeria. African Journal of Agricultural Research 6(13):2931-2934.

Akoroda MO, Dixon AGO, Okechukwu RU (2001). Relating early growth traits to root productivity for cassava breeding schemes. Proceedings of the 7th Triennial Symposium of the Rep. of International Society for Tropical Root Crops. Africa Branch held in Benin 11-17 October 1998. Compiled by Akoroda MO and Ngeve JM.

Ande OT (2011). Soil suitability evaluation and management for cassava production in the derived savanna area of south western Nigeria. International Journal of Soil Science 6(2):142-149.

Anneke MF, Tittonell PA, Giller KE (2010). Towards understanding factors that govern fertilizer response in cassava: lessons from East Africa. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystemes 86(1):133-151.

Anyaegbunam HW, Okoye BC, Asumugha GN, Ogbonna MC, Madu TU, Nwakor N, Ejechi ME (2010). Labour productivity among small holder Cassava farmers in South East agro ecological zone, Nigeria. Africa Journal of Agricultural Research 5(21):2882-2885.

Balagopalan C (2002). Cassava utilization in food, feed and industry. In: Hillocks RJ, Thresh JM, Bellotti AC (Eds). Cassava biology, production and utilization. New York: CABI Publishing pp 301-318.

Black CA (1975). Methods of soil analysis. Agronomy No 9, Part 2. American Society of Agronomy. Madison, Wisconsin.

Bray RH, Kurtz LT (1945). Determination of total, organic and available form of phosphorus in soils. Soil Science 59(1):39-46.

Bremner JM (1996). Methods of soil analysis: Chemical methods (No. 631.417/S736 V. 3). SSSA.

Burns A, Gleadow R, Cliff J, Zacarias A, Cavagnoro T (2010). Cassava : The drought, war and famine crop in a changing world. Sustainability 2:3572-3607.

Cardoso CEL, Souza J da S (1999). Aspectos agro-economicos da cultura da mandioca: potencialidades e limitacoes. [Agro-economic aspects of cassava culture: potentialities and limitations]. Cruz das Almas: Embrapa Mandioca e Fruticultura. Documentos 86.

Carter SE, Fresco IO, Jones PG, Faribarn JN (1992). An atlas cassava in Africa: historical, agroecological and demographic aspects of crop distribution. Center International de Agricultura Tropical Publication No. 206, Cali, Colombia.

El-sharkawy MA (1993). Drought-tolerant cassava for Africa, Asia and Latin America. Bioscience 43:441-451.

El-sharkawy MA, Cadadis LF, Tafur SM, Caicedo JA (1998). Genotypic differences in productivity by prolonged water stress. Acta Agronomica 48(1-2):9-22.

Ene LSO (1992). Prospects for processing and utilization of roots and tuber crops. In: National Root Crops Promotion of Root-Based Industries pp 7-11.

Ezedinma CN Nkang, Simon I (2006). Price transmission and market integration: A test of the central market hypothesis of geographical markets for cassava products in Nigeria. Global Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences 15(3-4).

Gee GW, Bauders A (1986). Particle size analysis. In: Khite A (Ed). Methods of Soil Analysis, Part 1 (2nd ed). Agronomy Monograph 9, ASA and SSA, Madison, WL.

Godfrey AI, Ezekiel UU, Donatus FU (2012). Selection criteria for stem and tuber yield in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz ). Journal of American Science 8:1120-1124.

Gomez KA, Gomez AA (1984). Statistical procedure for agricultural research. John Wiley and Sons, USA pp 104-115.

Howeler RH (1991). Long term effects of cassava cultivation on productivity. Field Crop Research 26(1):1-18.

IITA (International Institute of Tropical Agriculture) (1990). Cassava in tropical agriculture: A practical manual. International Root Crop-based Industries (1989) pp 4-6.

Irikura Y, Cock JH, Kawano K (1979). The physiological basis of genotype - temperature interactions in cassava. Field Crops Research 2:227-239.

Lahai MT, Ekanayaka IJ (2009). Accumulation and distribution of dry matter in relation to root yield of cassava under a fluctuating water in inland valley ecology. African Journal of Biotechnology 8:4895-4905.

Lebot V (2009). Tropical root and tuber crops: cassava, sweet potato, yams and aroids. CABI Publication.

Leon J (1997). Origin, evolution and early dispersal of root and tuber crops. In: Proceedings of the 4th Symposium of the International Society for Tropical Root Crops. International Development Research Centre, Ottawa, Canada pp 20-36.

Mbagwu JSC (1992). Improving the productivity of a degraded utisol in Nigeria using organic and inorganic amendments. Part 1: chemical properties and maize yield. Bioresource Technology 42:149-154.

Nelson DW, LE Sommers (1996). Total carbon, organic carbon and organic matter. Methods of soil analysis, Part 3 - Chemical methods pp 961-1010.

Njoku DN, Afuape SO, Ebeniro CN (2010). Growth and yield of cassava as influenced by grain cowpea population density in southern Nigeria. African Journal for Agricultural Research 5:2778-2781.

Nweke FI (1994). Processing potential for cassava production growth in Africa.

Nweke FI, Spencer D, Lynam JK (2002). The cassava transformation: Africa’s best kept secret. Michigan State University Press.

Odurukwe SO, Ikeorgu JEG (1994). Effects of fertilizer and time of introduction of cassava in yam/maize/cassava intercrop on component yields. In: Symposium on Tropical Root Crops in a Developing Economy 380:72-77.

Ogundari K, Ojo SO (2007). An examination of technical, economic and allocative efficiency of small farms: The case study of cassava farmers in Osun State of Nigeria. Journal of Central European Agriculture 7(3):423-432.

Okeke JE (1996). Effect of spatial arrangement and relative time of planting on intercropped maize and cassava. Tropical Science 36(1):6-10.

Okeke JE (1998). Cassava production in Nigeria. National Root Crops Research Institute, Umuahia, Abia State.

Okogbenin E, Ekanayaka IJ, Porto MCM (1999). Effect of planting material and soil moisture on cassava performance in the semi-arid Sudan savanna belt of Nigeria. African Crop Science Journal 7:21-33.

Okogun JA, Sanginga N, Adeola EO (1999). Soil fertility maintenance and strategies for cassava production in West and Central Africa. IITA, Ibadan, Nigeria.

Onwueme IC, Charles WB (1994). Tropical root and tuber crops: production, perspective and future prospects. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.

Pellet DM, El Sharkawy MA (1997). Cassava varietal response to fertilization: growth dynamics and implications for cropping sustainability. Experimental Agriculture 33(3):353-365.

Rao DM, Rao MS, Reddy KVS (1986). Nitrogen and potassium requirements of cassava. The Journal of Research APAU 14(2):157-161.

Sims IT (1996). Lime requirement. Pp 491-515. In: Sparks DL (Ed). Methods of soil analysis. Part 3. Chemical methods. SSSA and ASA Madison, WI.

Udealor A (2002). Studies on growth, yield, organic matter turnover and soil nutrient changes in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) vegetable cowpea (Vigna unguilata (L) walp) mixtures. PhD Thesis, University of Nigeria, Department of Crop Science, Nsukka, Nigeria.

Walkley A, Black IA (1934). An examination of Degtjareff method for determining soil organic matter and proposed modification of chronic and titration method. Soil Science 73:29-38.

Yakasi MT (2010). Economic contribution of cassava production (a case study of Kuje area council federal capital territory, Abuja, Nigeria). Bayero Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences 3(1):215-219.

Zhang W, Lingh X, Kaimian L (1998). Cassava breeding, agronomy and farmer participatory research in Asia. Proceedings of the fifth regional workshop held at CATAS, Danzhou, Hainan, China, 3-8 Nov 1996. Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical, Regional Cassava Program for Asia.

How to Cite
MUOJIAMA, S. O., AGBO, C. U., EZE, S. C., & UBA, C. U. (2018). Agronomic Evaluation of New Varieties of Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) under Different Rates and Modes of NPK (12-12-17-2) Fertilizer Application in Two Seasons. Notulae Scientia Biologicae, 10(1), 107-116.
Research articles
DOI: 10.15835/nsb10110190