Studies on Ameliorative Effects of Polyphenolic Extract from Paullinia pinnata L. (Sapindaceae) on Carbon Tetrachloride - Induced Hepatotoxicity and Oxidative Stress: an in vivo Assessment


  • Mikhail O. NAFIU University of Ilorin, Department of Biochemistry, P. M. B. 1515, Ilorin (NG)
  • Sefiu S. OLANIYI University of Ilorin, Department of Biochemistry, P. M. B. 1515, Ilorin (NG)
  • Musa O. SALAWU University of Ilorin, Department of Biochemistry, P. M. B. 1515, Ilorin (NG)
  • Abdulwakeel Ayokun-nun AJAO University of Johannesburg, Department of Botany and Plant Biotechnology, P.O.Box 524, Auckland Park APK, 2006 (ZA)
  • Musbau A. AKANJI University of Ilorin, Department of Biochemistry, P. M. B. 1515, Ilorin (NG)



antioxidant; bilirubin; CCL4; hepatotoxicity; globulin; homogenate; serum


The current study investigates the effects of polyphenolic extract from the leaf of Paullinia pinnata against CCl4 – induced oxidative stress and liver damage in female albino rats. Thirty albino rats were randomly distributed into six groups (A-F). Rats in group A were given 1 ml normal saline orally to serve as control. The rats in groups B, C, D, E, and F were respectively induced intraperitoneally with single administration of 1 ml/kg body weight (b. wt) CCl4 dissolved in liquid paraffin (1:1). Thirty minutes after induction, the rats in the respective groups were orally treated with normal saline, 50 mg/kg b. wt. Silymarin, 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg b. wt. polyphenolic extract from P. pinnata respectively, once daily for 7 days.  Levels of liver function indices and the activities of antioxidant enzymes were determined. Administration of polyphenolic extract from P. pinnata significantly (p < 0.05) ameliorated CCl4- induced hepatotoxicity with respect to liver function indices, antioxidant and lipid peroxidation parameters. The biochemical changes observed were also consistent with histopathological observations on the rat liver, as architectural degeneration and severe cellular necrosis were restored after the administration of polyphenolic extract from P. pinnata in the treated groups. The study suggests that polyphenolic extract from P. pinnata is a potential hepatoprotective agent against CCl4-mediated hepatic injury through fortification of antioxidant defense mechanisms.


Metrics Loading ...


Adebayo JO, Yakubu MT, Egwin CE, Owoyele BV, Enaibe BU (2003). Effect of ethanolic extract of Khaya senegalensis on some biochemical parameters of rat kidney. Journal of Ethnopaharmacology 88:69-72.

Adewale OB, Adekeye AO, Akintayo CO, Onikanni A, Sabiu S (2014). Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatic damage in experimental Sprague Dawley rats: Antioxidant potential of Xylopia aethiopica .The Journal of Phytopharmacology 3(2):118-123.

Aguirre L, Portillo MP, Hijona E, Bujanda L (2014). Effects of resveratrol and other polyphenols in hepatic steatosis. World Journal of Gastroenterology 20(23):7366-7380.

Akanji MA, Ngaha EO (1989). Effect of repeated administration of berenil on urinary excretion with corresponding tissue pattern in rats. Basic and Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology 64:272-275.

Ali M, Qadir MI, Saleem M, Janbaz KH, Gul H, Hussain L, Ahmed B (2013). Hepatoprotective potential of Convolvulus arvensis against paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity. Bangladesh Journal of Pharmacology 8:300-304.

American Liver Foundation (2017). The Liver Lowdown – Liver disease: the big picture. Retrieved March 12 2017 from

Annan K, Dickson RA, Amponsah IK, Jato J, Nooni IK (2013). Pharmacognostic evaluation and physicochemical analysis of Paullinia pinnata L. (Sapindaceae). Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry 2(2).

Balamuruganvelu S, Geethavani B, Premlal KR, Sengottuvelu S, Jaikumar S (2014). Hepatoprotective activity of Polyalthia longifolia leaves against paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Scholars Journal of Applied Medical Sciences 2:908-910.

Beers RF Jr, Sizer IW (1952). A spectrophotometric method for measuring the breakdown of hydrogen peroxide by catalase. Journal of Biological Chemistry 195(1):133-140.

Boll M, Weber LWD, Becker E, Stampfl A (2011b). Pathogenesis of carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatocyte injury. Bioactivation of CC14 by cytochrome P450 and effects on lipid homeostasis. Zeitschrift für Naturforschung C 56(1-2):111-121.

Boll M, Weber LWD, Becker E, Stampfl A (2011c). Hepatocyte damage induced by carbon tetrachloride. Inhibited lipoprotein secretion and altered lipoprotein composition. Zeitschrift für Naturforschung C 56:283-290.

Boll M, Weber LWD, Becker E, Stampfl A (2011a). Mechanism of carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity. Hepatocellular damage by reactive carbon tetrachloride metabolites. Verlag der Zeitschrift für Naturforschung Tübingen 56:649-659.

Büyükbalci A, El SN (2008). Determination of in vitro antidiabetic effects, antioxidant activities and phenol contents of some herbal teas. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition 63(1): 27-33.

Clawson GA (1989). Mechanism of carbon tetrachloride toxicity. Pathology and immunopathology Research 8(2):104-112.

Contreras-Zentella ML, Hernández-Muñoz R (2016). Is liver enzyme release really sassociated with cell necrosis induced by oxidant stress? Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity 2016:3529149.

Danilewicz JC (2015). Folin-Ciocalteu, FRAP, and DPPH• assays for measuring polyphenol concentration in white wine. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture 66(4):463-471.

Doumas BT, Watson WA, Biggs HG (1971). Albumin standards and the measurement of serum albumin with bromcresol green. Clinica Chimica Acta 31(1):87-96.

Drury RAB, Wallington EA (1980). Preparation and fixation of tissues. In: Drury RAB, Wallington EA (Eds). Carleton's Histological Technique. 5. Oxford: Oxford University Press pp 41-54.

Emeka EJI, Obioa O (2009). Effect of a long term consumption of a diet supplemented with leaves of Gongronema latifolium Benth on some biochemical and histological parameters in male albino rats. Journal of Biological Sciences 9:859-865.

Etim O, Akpan E, Usoh I (2008). Hepatotoxicity of carbon tetrachloride: protective effect of Gongronema latifolium. Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 21(3): 269-274.

Fred-Jaiyesimi AA, Anthony O (2011). Larvicidal activities of the extract and fractions of Paullinia pinnata Linn leaf. Pharmacognosy Communications 1(2):37-40.

Gill L S (1992). Ethnomedical uses of plants in Nigeria. Uniben Press Benin-City pp 82-83.

Jaeschke H, Knight TR, Bajt ML (2003). The role of oxidant stress and reactive nitrogen species in acetaminophen hepatotoxicity. Toxicology Letters 144(3):279-288.

Jaramillo-Juarez F, Rodriguez-Vazquez ML, Rincon-Sanchez AR, Consolacion M, Martinez GG, Ortiz J, Reyes JL (2008). Caffeic acid phenethyl ester against carbon tetrachloride toxicity in rats. Ann Hepatol 7:331-338.

Jimoh FO, Sofidiya MO, Afolayan AJ (2007). Antioxidant properties of the methanol extracts from the leaves of Paullinia pinnata. Journal of Medicinal Food 10(4): 707-711.

Khan RA, Khan MR, Sahreen S (2012). CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity: protective effect of rutin on p53, CYP2E1 and the antioxidative status in rat. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 12(1):178.

Kim D, Lee CY (2002). Extraction and isolation of polyphenolics. In: Wrolstad RE, Acree TE, Decker EA, Penner MH, Reid DS, Schwartz SJ, Shoemaker CF, Smith D, Sporns P (Eds). Current protocols in food analytical chemistry. Supplement 6: I 1.2.1-I 1.2.12. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.

Laight DW, Carrier MJ, Anggard EE (2000). Antioxidants, diabetes and endothelial dysfunction. Cardiovascular Research 47(3):457-464.

Lil JL, Stantman FW, Lardy HA (1988). Antioxidant enzyme systems in rat liver and skeletal muscle. Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics 263:150-160.

Ma JQ, Ding J, Zhang L, Liu CM (2014). Ursolic acid protects mouse liver against CCl4-induced oxidative stress and inflammation by the MAPK/NF-kappaB pathway. Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology 37(3): 975-983.

Ma JQ, Li Z, Xie WR, Liu CM, Liu SS (2015). Quercetin protects mouse liver against CCl(4)-induced inflammation by the TLR2/4 and MAPK/NF-kappaB pathway. International Immunopharmacology 28(1):531-539.

Mahmud ZA, Bachar SC, Qais N (2012). Antioxidant and hepatoprotective activities of ethanolic extracts of leaves of Premna esculenta Roxb. against carbon tetrachloride- induced liver damage in rats. Journal of Young Pharmacists 4(4):228-234.

Mallhi TH, Abbas K, Ali M, Qadir MI, Saleem M, Khan YH (2014). Hepatoprotective activity of methanolic extract of Malva parviflora against paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity in mice. Bangladesh Journal of Pharmacology 9:342-346.

Mansour SA, Mohamed RI, Ali AR (2017). Ameliorating effect of selenium against deltamethrin induced hepato-renal dysfunction and oxidative stress to pregnant rats and their offspring. Journal of Toxicology and Pharmacology 1:002.

Marklund S, Marklund G (1974). Involvement of the superoxide anion radical in the autoxidation of pyrogallol and a convenient assay for superoxide dismutase. The FEBS Journal 47(3):469-474.

Moore KL, Dalley AF (1999). Clinical oriented anatomy (4th ed). Lippincot Williams and Williams; a Woller klumner Corporation, Philadelphia pp 263-271.

Murugesan GS, Sathishkumar M, Jayabalani R, Binupriya AR, Swaminathani K, Yuri SE (2009). Hepatoprotective and alterative properties of kombucha tea against carbon tetrachloride-induced toxicity. Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 19(4): 397-402.

Niki E (2009). Lipid peroxidation: physiological levels and dual biological effects. Free Radical Biology and Medicine 47(5):469-484.

Ogeturk M, Kus I, Colakoglu N, Zararsiz I, Ilhan N, Sarsilmaz M (2005). Caffeic acid phenethyl ester protects kidneys against carbon tetrachloride toxicity in rats. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 97:273-280.

Patrick-Iwanyanwu K, Ogwe G, Onwuka F(2010). The hepatotoxic effect of water soluble fraction of spent lubricating oil in Wistar albino rats. The Internet Journal of Toxicology 7(2).

Plummer DT (1978). In: An introduction to practical biochemistry (2nd ed), McGraw-Hill, London pp 144-145.

Reilly CA, Aust SD (2001). Measurement of lipid peroxidation. Current Protocols in Toxicology 2(4):2-4.

Reitman S, Frankel S (1957). A colourimetric method for determination of serum glutamate-oxaloacetate and pyruvate transaminase. American Journal of Clinical Pathology 28:56-59.

Sabiu S, O’Neill FH, Ashafa AOT (2016). Zea mays, Stigma maydis prevents and extenuates acetaminophen-perturbed oxidative onslaughts in rat hepatocytes. Pharmaceutical Biology 54(11):2664-2673.

Sabiu S, Sunmonu TO, Ajani EO, Ajiboye TO (2015). Combined administration of silymarin and vitamin C stalls acetaminophen-mediated hepatic oxidative insults in Wistar rats. Brazilian Journal of Pharmacology 25:29-34.

Szasz G (1974). Methods of enzymatic analysis. (2nd ed).

Schmidt E, Schmidt FW (1963). Determination of serum GOT and GPT. Enzymologia Biologica et Clinica 3:1.

Sheehan M, Haythorn P (1979). Predictive values of various liver function tests with respect to the diagnosis of liver disease. Clinical Biochemistry 12(6):262-263.

Sherlock S (1951). Liver disease. Journal of Biochemistry 297:204-279.

Somnath D, Suresh R, Murali A, Babu SS, Aneela S (2017). In-vivo hepatoprotective activity of methanolic extracts of Sphaeranthus amaranthoides and Oldenlandia umbellate. Pharmacognosy Journal 9(1):98-101.

Szymonik-Lesiuk SM, Czechowska M, Stryjecka-Zimmer M, Somka A, Madro K, Celiski M, Wielosz M (2003). Catalase, superoxide dismutase, and glutathion peroxidase activities in various rat tissues after carbon tetrachloride intoxication. Journal of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Sciences 10(4):309-315.

Tamokou JD, Chouna JR, Fischer-Fodor E, Chereches G, Barbos O (2013). Anticancer and antimicrobial activities of some antioxidant-rich cameroonian medicinal plants. PLoS ONE 8(2):e55880.

Tietz NW (1995). Clinical guide to laboratory tests (3rd ed). WB Saunders Company, Philadelphia.

Tipoe GL, Leung TM, Liong E, So H, Leung KM, Lau TY, Tom WM, Fung ML, Fan ST, Nanji AA (2006). Inhibitors of inducible nitric oxide (NO) synthase are more effective than an NO donor in reducing carbon-tetrachloride induced acute liver injury. Histology and Histopathology 21:1157-1165.

Umer S, Asres K, Veeresham C (2010). Hepatoprotective activities of two Ethiopian medicinal plants. Pharmaceutical Biology 48(4):461-468.

Venkatanarayana G, Sudhakara G, Sivajyothi P, Indira P (2012). Protective effects of curcumin and vitamin E on carbon tetrachlorideinduced nephrotoxicity in rats. EXCLI Journal 11:641-650.

Wright PJ, Plummer DT, Leathwood PT (1972). Enzyme in rat urine alkaline phosphatase. Enzymologia 42:317-327.

Wright PJ, Plummer DT (1974). The use of urinary enzyme measurements to detect renal damage caused by nephrotoxic compounds. Biochemical Pharmacology 23(1):65-73.

Wu T, Li J, Li Y, Song H (2017). Antioxidant and hepatoprotective effect of swertiamarin on carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity via the Nrf2/HO-1 pathway. Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry 41(6):2242-2254.

Yakubu MT, Bilbis LS, Lawal M, Akanji MA (2003). Evaluation of selected parameters of rat and kidney function following repeated administration of yohimbine. Biokemistri 15(2):50-56.

Yoshida Y, Umeno A, Shichiri M (2013). Lipid peroxidation biomarkers for evaluating oxidative stress and assessing antioxidant capacity in vivo. Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition 52(1): 9-16.

Yusuf A, Zakir A, Shemau Z, Abdullahi M, Halima SA (2014). Phytochemical analysis of the methanol leaves extract of Paullinia pinnata Linn. Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytotherapy 6(2):10-16.

Zamble AMS, Carpentier M, Kandoussi A, Schpaz S, Petrault O, Ouk U, Hennuyer N, Fruchert JC, Staeles B, Bodret R, Duriez P, Baillent FJ (2006). Paulina pinnata extracts rich in polyphenols, promote vascular relaxation via endothelium-dependent mechanisms. Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology 47(4):559-608.




How to Cite

NAFIU, M. O., OLANIYI, S. S., SALAWU, M. O., AJAO, A. A.- nun, & AKANJI, M. A. (2018). Studies on Ameliorative Effects of Polyphenolic Extract from Paullinia pinnata L. (Sapindaceae) on Carbon Tetrachloride - Induced Hepatotoxicity and Oxidative Stress: an in vivo Assessment. Notulae Scientia Biologicae, 10(1), 79–86.



Research articles
DOI: 10.15835/nsb10110189