Susceptibility of Selected Multi-Drug Resistant Clinical Isolates to Different Leaf Extracts of Senna alata

Ibikunle Ibitayo ANIBIJUWON, Ifeoluwa Deborah GBALA, Bright Ifeanyi NNADOZIE, Olubukola IFAYEFUMI

Abstract


The present study evaluated the antibacterial effects of the methanolic, ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Senna alata leaves. The extracts were tested using agar well diffusion method against selected clinical isolates: Salmonella typhi, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Antibiogram profile of the isolates deduced by disc diffusion method confirmed that the methanolic extract inhibited the growth of all tested organisms except for Klebsiella pneumoniae, which also showed no sensitivity to the ethanolic extract. There was no inhibition observed for the aqueous extract against all the tested organisms, indicating that the methanolic extract of the plant was more potent than the aqueous extract. Inhibitory activities were observed for gentamicin, ofloxacin and erythromycin against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. No inhibitory activity was observed in all the antibiotics against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In Klebsiella pneumoniae, inhibition was only observed in ofloxacin. The activity of both the methanolic and ethanolic extract of Senna alata was optimal under different concentrations, but gradually diminished as the concentration was adjusted. The activity of the plant extracts against the selected bacteria is an indication of the presence of broad spectrum bioactive compounds which could be explored in the therapy of bacterial infections.


Keywords


antibiotic resistance; minimum inhibitory concentration; minimum bactericidal concentration

Full Text:

PDF

References


Adebolu TT, Oladimeji SA (2005). Antimicrobial activity of leaf extracts of Ocimum gratissmum on selected diarrhea causing bacteria in South-western Nigeria. African Journal of Biotechnology 4(7):682-684.

Afrin M (2015). Phytochemical and biological investigation of Senna alata leaves. Doctoral dissertation, East West University.

Anibijuwon II, Udeze AO (2009). Antimicrobial activity of Carica papaya (Pawpaw Leaf) on some pathogenic organisms of clinical origin from South-Western Nigeria. Ethnobotanical Leaflets 7:4.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Antibiotic Resistance Threats in the United States (CDCP) (2014). Retrieved 2017 Nov 12 from http://www.cdc.gov/drugresistance/threat-report-2014/pdf/ar-threats-2013-508.pdf.

Charyulu EM, Gnanamani A (2010). Condition stabilization for Pseudomonas aeruginosa MTCC 5210 to yield high titers of extra cellular antimicrobial secondary metabolite using response surface methodology. Current Research in Bacteriology 4:197-213.

Cheesbrough M (2006). District laboratory practice in tropical countries. Cambridge University Press.

Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) (2016). Performance standards for antimicrobial susceptibility testing; Twenty-sixth informational supplement. CLSI document M100-S26. Wayne, PA: Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute.

De Cock KM, Simone PM, Davison V, Slutsker L (2013). The new global health. Emerging Infectious Diseases 19(8):1192-1197.

Ekor M (2013). The growing use of herbal medicines: issues relating to adverse reactions and challenges in monitoring safety. Frontiers in Pharmacology 4:177.

Hubert J, Mabagala R, Mamiro D (2015). Efficacy of selected plant extracts against Pyricularia grisea, causal agent of rice blast disease. American Journal of Plant Sciences 17:602-611.

Katiyar C, Gupta A, Kanjilal S, Katiyar S (2012). Drug discovery from plant sources: An integrated approach. AYU 33(1):10.

Lee N, Huang W, Tsui K, Hsueh P, Ko W (2011). Carbapenem therapy for bacteremia due to extended-spectrum β-lactamase–producing Escherichia coli or Klebsiella pneumoniae. Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease 70(1):150-153.

Mahmood AM, Amey JM (2007). In vitro antibacterial activity of Parkia biglobosa (Jacq) root, bark extract against some microorganisms associated with urinary tract infections. African Journal of Pharmacology 6(11):1272-1275.

Matsumura N, Iyobe SH, Kusadokoro J, Ozaki S Minami, S Haruta, T Sawai, K O'Hara (2000). Amino acid substitutions in a variant of IMP-1 metallo-β-lactamase. Antimicrobial Agents Chemotherapy 44(8):2023-2027.

Mortensen L, Kristiansen, BE Sandnes RA (2016).The prevalence of antibiotic resistance in bacterial respiratory pathogens from Norway is low. Clinical Microbiology and Infection 7(12):682-687.

Saikat Sen, Raja Chakraborty (2016). Revival, modernization and integration of Indian traditional herbal medicine in clinical practice: Importance, challenges and future. Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine 7(2):233-234.

Trease GE, Evans WC (1978). Pharmocology,11th ed. Bailliere Tindall Ltd, London pp 60-75.

Willey JM, Sherwood LM, Woolverton CJ (2008). Prescott, Harley and Kleins Microbiology, 7th ed. McGraw Hill Company New York. America.

Yoon Ki-Bok, Byung-Joon Song, Mi-Yeong Shin, Hyun-Cheol Lim, Yeon-Hee Yoon, Doo-Young Jeon, Hoon Ha, Soo-In Yang, Jung-Beom Kim (2017). Antibiotic resistance patterns and serotypes of Salmonella spp. isolated at Jeollanam-do in Korea. Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives 8(3):211-219.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15835/nsb10110176


**********************************************************************

Under the aegis of Horticulture and Forestry Society from Transylvania

**********************************************************************