Gibberellic Acid Production by Fusarium moniliforme and Aspergillus niger Using Submerged Fermentation of Banana Peel
The present study aimed to produce gibberellic acid through fermentation using banana (Musa sapientum) peel waste as substrate. Banana peel, a domestic and industrial waste, constitutes a potential source of cheap fermentable substrate for the production of other value-added products. Fusarium moniliforme ATCC 10052 and Aspergillus niger CBS 513.88 were used as fermenting organisms. The substrate was dried, ground and its proximate composition determined. The powdered substrate was added to a modified CzapekDox broth (a semisynthetic medium), with Carboxyl methylcellulose (CMC) as control. The fermentation conditions were: pH 5.5; inoculum size 1% (5 × 105 spores/mL F. moniliforme) (2 × 106 spores/mL A. niger); substrate concentration 2 g; temperature 25 ± 2 oC; fermentation time 7 days. The fermentation was optimized by varying pH, inoculum size, substrate concentration and fermentation time. The extracted GA was subjected to infra-red spectroscopy using FT-IR. The parameters which gave the highest GA yields were thereafter combined in a single fermentation. The results of proximate analysis of banana peel substrate revealed 8.65% moisture, 9.54% protein, 5.40% lipids, 11.45% ash, 22.34% crude fibre, and 42.62% carbohydrate. The GA yields of 13.55 g/L and 12.44 g/L were produced from the banana peel substrate and 3.62 and 2.61 g/L from the CMC control by F. moniliforme and A. niger respectively. Under optimized conditions, F. moniliforme produced 17.48 g/L GA, while A. niger produced 13.50 g/L. Extracted GA was similar to standard GA sample and the present results support the potential use of banana peel for fermentative GA production.
Anhwange BA (2008). Chemical composition of Musa sapientum (banana) peels. Journal of Food Technology 6(6):263-266.
AOAC (1990). Official methods of analysis of the association of official analytical chemists (15th ed). Arlington, Virginia.
AOAC (2002). Official methods of analysis of the association of official analytical chemists (17th ed). Volume I and II. Maryland.
Avinash CS, Shahid A, Agarwal DK, Sarbhoy AK (2003). Screening of potential gibberellins producing Fusarium strains for the hybrid rice production. Journal of Food Agriculture and Environment 1:250-253.
Ates S, Ozenir S, Gökdere M (2006). Effect of silicone oil on gibberellic acid production by Gibberella fujikuroi and Aspergillus niger. Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology 42(5):500-501.
Berrios J, Illanes A, Aroca G (2004). Spectrophotometric method for determining gibberellic acid in fermentation broths. Biotechnology Letters 26(1):67-70.
Bilkay IS, Karakoc S, Aksoz N (2010). Indole-3-acetic acid and gibberellic acid production in Aspergillus niger. Turkish Journal of Biology 34:313-318.
Bömke C, Tudzynski B (2009). Diversity, regulation, and evolution of the gibberellin biosynthetic pathway in fungi compared to plants and bacteria. Phytochemistry 70:1876-1893.
Bradley RL (2010). Moisture and total solids analysis. In: Food analysis. Springer US pp 85-104.
Chinedu SN, Eni AO, Adeniyi AI, Ayangbemi JA (2010). Assessment of growth and cellulase production of wild-type microfungi isolated from Ota, Nigeria. Asian Journal of Plant Sciences 9(3):118-125.
Cuali-Alvarez I, Pavon-Romero SH, Colin-Cruz A (2011). Production of gibberellic acid from Gibberella fujikuroi using municipal sewage sludge as a substrate. Universitas Scientiarum 16(1):51-62.
Da Silva AL, Rodrigues C, Costa JD, Machado MP, Penha RD, Biasi LA, Vandenberghe LP, Soccol CR (2013). Gibberellic acid fermented extract obtained by solid-state-fermentation using citrus pulp by Fusarium moniliforme: Influence on Lavandula angustifolia Mill., cultivated in vitro. Pakistan Journal of Botany 45(6):2057-2064.
Dashtban M, Schraft H, Qin W (2009). Fungal bioconversion of lignocellulosic residues: opportunities and perspectives. International Journal of Biological Sciences 5:578-595.
Dsikowitzky L, Schwarzbauer J (2013). Organic Contaminants from Industrial wastewaters: identification, toxicity and fate in the environment. In: Lichtfouse E (Ed). Pollutant Diseases, Remediation and Recycling. Springer International Publishing Switzerland pp 45-101.
Escamilla EM, Dendooven L, Magana IP, Parra R, De la Torre M (2000). Optimization of gibberellic acid production by immobilized Gibberella fujikuroi mycelium in fluidized bioreactors. Journal of Biotechnology 76:147-155.
Ezejiofor TIN, Eke NV, Okechukwu RI, Nwoguikpe RN, Duru CM (2011). Waste to wealth: Industrial raw materials potential of peels of Nigerian sweet orange (Citrus sinensis). African Journal of Biotechnology 10(33):6257-6264.
Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) (2008).The world banana economy-Food and agriculture Organization. Retrieved 2016 Oct 14 from http://www.fao.org/docrep/007/y5102e/y5102e04.html
Ibitoye AA (2005). Laboratory manual on basic methods in plant analysis. Practical Manual on Plant Analysis pp 2-5.
Juarez-Garcia L, Agama-Aceredo E, Sayago-Ayerdi SG, Rodriguez-Ambriz SL, Bello-Perez LA (2006).Composition digestibility and application in bread making of banana flours. Plants Foods and Human Nutrition 61:131-137.
Kahlon SS, Mahlotra S (1986). Production of gibberellic acid by fungal mycelium immobilized in sodium alginate. Enzyme and Microbial Technology 8:613-616.
Karthikeyan A, Sivakumar N (2010). Citric acid production by Koji fermentation using banana peel as a novel substrate. Bioresource Technology101:5552-5556.
Kobomoje OS, Mohammed AO, Omojasola PF (2013). The production of gibberellic acid from shea nut shell (Vitellaria paradoxa) using Fusarium moniliforme. Asian Journal of Plant Science and Research 3(2):23-26.
Kumar PKR, Lonsane BK (1989). Microbial production of gibberellins: state of the art. Advances in Applied Microbiology 34:29-139.
Kumar PKR, Lonsane BK (1990). Solid state fermentation: physical and nutritional factors influencing gibberellic acid production. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 34:145-148.
Kwon CT, Paek NC (2016). Gibberellic acid: a key phytohormone for spikelet fertility in rice grain production. International Journal of Molecular Sciences 17(5):794. doi:10.3390/ijms17050794.
Lale G, Jogdand VV, Gadre RV (2006). Morphological mutants of Gibberella fujikuroi for enhanced production of gibberellic acid. Journal of Applied Microbiology 100:65-72.
Lale G, Gadre R (2010). Enhanced production of gibberellin A4 (GA4) by a mutant of Gibberella fujikuroi in wheat gluten medium. Journal of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology 37:297-306.
Mander LN (2003). Twenty years of gibberellin research. Natural Products Report 20:49-69.
Meleigy SA, Khalaf MA (2009). Biosynthesis of gibberellic acid from milk permeate in repeated batch operation by a mutant Fusarium moniliforme cells immobilized on loofa sponge. Bioresource Technology 100:374-379.
Morais DR, Rotta EM, Sargi SC, Bonafe EG, Suzuki RM, Souza NE, Matsushita M, Visentainer JV (2017). Proximate composition mineral contents and fatty acid composition of the different parts and dried peels of tropical fruits cultivated in Brazil. Journal of the Brazilian Chemical Society 28(2):308-318.
Nandini S, Nandini KE, Krishna SS (2014). Food and Agriculture Residue (FAR): A potential substrate for tannase and gallic acid production using competent microbes. Journal of Bioprocessing and Biotechniques 5:193.
Omojasola PF, Benu OE (2016). Fermentative production of gibberellic acid from Jatropha curcas seed cake using Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus terreus. FUTA Journal of Research in Sciences 12(2):242-251.
Padam BS, Tin HS, Chye FY, Abdullah MI (2014). Banana by-products: an underutilized renewable food biomass with great potential. Journal of Food Science and Technology 51(12):3527-3545.
Pandey A, Soccol CR, Mitchell D (2000). New developments in solid state fermentation: bioprocesses and products. Process Biochemistry 35:1153-1169.
Pastrana LM, Gonzalez MP, Murado MA (1993). Production of gibberellic acid from mussel processing wastes in submerged batch culture. Bioresource Technology 4(5):213-221.
Rachev RC, Pavlova-Rouseva R, Bojkova SV, Gancheva VK (1993). Isolation of gibberellic acid produced by Fusarium moniliforme. Journal of Natural Products 56(7):1168-1170.
Rademacher W (2016). Chemical regulators of gibberellin status and their application in plant production. Annual Plant Reviews 49:359-404.
Rangaswamy V (2012). Improved production of gibberellic acid by Fusarium moniliforme. Journal of Microbiological Research 2(3): 51-55.
Rios-Iribe EY, Flores-Cotera LB, Gonzalez-Chavira MM, Gonzalez-Alatorre G, Escamilla-Silva EM (2011). Inductive effect produced by a mixture of carbon source in the production of gibberellic acid by Gibberella fujikuroi. World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 27:1499-1505.
Rodrigues C, Vandenberghe LP, Teodoro J, Oss JF, Pandey A, Soccol CR (2009). A new alternative to produce gibberellic acid by solid state fermentation. Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology 52(special):181-188.
Romelle FD, Ashwini RP, Ragu SM (2016). Chemical composition of some selected fruit peels. European Journal of Food Science and Technology 4(4):12-21.
Shukla R, Chand S, Srivastava AK (2005). Improvement of gibberellic acid production using a model based fed-batch cultivation of Gibberella fujikuori. Process Biochemistry 40:2045-2050.
Silverstein RM, Webster FX, Kiemle DJ, Bryce DL (2014). Spectrometric identification of organic compounds. John Wiley & Sons Inc., New Jersey US.
Sleem DAE (2013). Studies on the bioproduction of gibberellic acid from fungi. PhD Thesis, Benha Univ, Egypt.
Distribution - Permissions - Copyright
Papers published in Notulae Scientia Biologicae are Open-Access, distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution License.
© Articles by the authors; licensee SHST, Cluj-Napoca, Romania. The journal allows the author(s) to hold the copyright/to retain publishing rights without restriction.
Open Access Journal - the journal offers free, immediate, and unrestricted access to peer-reviewed research and scholarly work, due SHST supports to increase the visibility, accessibility and reputation of the researchers, regardless of geography and their budgets. Users are allowed to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of the articles, or use them for any other lawful purpose, without asking prior permission from the publisher or the author.