Phytotoxicity of Chitosan and SiO2 Nanoparticles to Seed Germination of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) Plants
Plants such as wheat and barley that are strategically important crops need to be considered to develop a comprehensive toxicity profile for nanoparticles (NPs). The present study was aimed to investigate the effects of chitosan and SiO2 NPs on wheat and barley plants. Two factorial experiments (seeds priming and direct exposure) were performed based on a completely randomized design in four replications. Results showed that the seeds priming with the NPs had not significant effect on germination parameters such as Germination Percentage (GP), Germination Rate (GR), Germination Value (GV), Mean Germination Time (MGT), Pick Value (PV) and Mean Daily Germination (MDG). In contrast, exposure of the seeds to the NPs had significant effects on these parameters. In both experiments, treatments had significant effects on shoot, seedling, root length, fresh and dry weight, as well as vigor indexes as compared to the control. In most traits, the best concentration of NPs was 30 ppm, whereas applications of the NPs with 90 ppm displayed adverse effects on majority of the studied traits. According to these results, selectivity in applications of NPs with suitable concentration and method is essential for different plant species.
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