Physicochemical and Microbiological Assessment of Selected Hand-Dug Wells for Water Quality in Ilesa Metropolis, Southwest Nigeria

Ayodele Jacob OMOTOSO, Esther Omotola DADA, Olaoluwa OYEDEJI

Abstract


The present study investigated the physicochemical and microbiological assessment of selected hand-dug wells for water quality in Ilesa metropolis. The aim was to assess the groundwater quality. Twenty-five (25) hand-dug wells were randomly selected and water samples were collected four times spanning through the rainy and dry seasons. Physical parameters (ambient air temperature, water temperature, colour, turbidity and total dissolved solids), chemical (pH, conductivity, calcium, magnesium, total hardness, chlorides, sulphates, phosphates and nitrates) and microbiological parameters (total heterotrophic bacteria count, Escherichia coli and total heterotrophic fungi count) of the samples were examined. The data obtained were subjected to relevant statistical analysis. Results showed distinct seasonal variation in ambient air temperature, water temperature, pH and magnesium with highly significant different values at (p ˂ 0.01). Total hardness and sulphates concentrations had high significant different values in the dry season than in the rainy season (p ˂ 0.05) while the total heterotrophic bacteria count was significantly different at (p ˂ 0.001). The bacteria species isolated from well water samples were susceptible to pefloxacin and gentamicin. Comparing with international guide levels for drinking water, water samples were poor and unsuitable for drinking. The study concluded that the presence of multiple antibiotic resistant micro-organisms indicates a serious health hazard to the consumers of water obtained from these wells.


Keywords


antibiotics; data; hazards; parameters; quality; spanning

Full Text:

PDF

References


Adedeji AO (2001). Quality of drinking water in Lagos State. Discovery Innovation 7:56.

Adeyemo OK, Adedokun OA, Yusuf RK, Adeleye EA (2008). Seasonal changes in physico-chemical parameter and nutrient load of river sediments in Ibadan City, Nigeria. Global Nest. The International Journal 10 (3):326-336.

Anetekhai MA (1986). Aspects of the bioecology of the African river prawn Macrobrachium vollenhovenii (Herklots) in Asejire Lake, Oyo State, Nigeria. PhD Thesis, University of Ibadan.

Anthony KRN, Diaz-Pulido G, Verlinden N, Tilbrook B, Andersson AJ (2013). Benthic buffers and boosters of ocean acidification on coral reefs. Biogeosciences 10(7):4897-4909.

Atef M, Al-Attar (2007). The influence of nickel exposure on selected physiological parameters and gill structure in the teleost fish, Oreochromis niloticus. Journal of Biological Science 7(1):77-85.

Bauer AW, Kirby MM, Sheris JS, Turek M (1969). Antibiotic susceptibility testing by a standardized single disk method. American Journal Clinical Pathology 45(4):939-396.

Bello MH (2002). Geoelectric and geochemical evaluation of groundwater quality at Olusosun refuse dumpsite, Ojota Lagos. Unpublished Report.

Bertram J, Balance R (1998). Water quality monitoring: a practical guide to the design and implementation of freshwater quality studies and monitoring programmes. CRC Press.

Black RE (1993). Persistent diarrhea in children in developing countries. Pediatric Infection Diseases Journal 12:751-761.

Boleda MR, Galceran MT, Ventura F (2011). Behavior of pharmaceuticals and drugs of abuse in a drinking water treatment plant (DWTP) using combined conventional and ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis (UF/RO) treatments. Environmental Pollution 159(6):1584-1591.

Bouwer H (2002). Artificial recharge of groundwater. Hydrology Engineering Hydro-geology Journal 10(1):121-142.

Bowell RJ, McEdonney S, Warren A, Bwankuzo M (1996). Biogeochemical factors affecting groundwater quality in Tanzania. Environmental Geochemistry and Health, British Geological Survey 113:107-130.

Canton R, Coque TM, Baquero F (2003). Multi-resistant gram-negative bacilli: from epidemics to endemics. Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases 16:315-325.

Cho DI, Ogwang T, Opio C (2010). Simplifying the water poverty index. Social Indicator Research 97(2):257-267.

Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) (2013). Performance standards for antimicrobial disk susceptibility tests. Approved standard M2-A10. Wayne, P.A: Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute.

Corbit RA (2004). Standard handbook of environmental engineering. McGraw - Hill Companies. New York, USA, 2nd ed pp 6-19.

Craun FG (1988). Surface water supplies and health. Journal America Water Works Association 80:40-52.

Datta PS, Bhattacharya SK, Tyagi SK (1996). 18O Studies on recharge of phreatic aquifers and groundwater flow-paths of mixing in the Delhi area. Journal of Hydrology 176(1-4):25-36.

Efe SI, Ogba FE, Horsfall M Jnr, Akporhinor EE (2005). Seasonal variations of physicochemical characteristics in water resources quality in western Niger Delta region, Nigeria. Journal Applied Science Environmental Management 9(1):191-195.

Egborge ABM (1976). The effect of impoundment on the water chemistry of Lake Asejire. Nigerian Freshwater Biology 9:403-412.

Egborge ABM (1978). Observations on the diurnal changes in some physicochemical variables of Lake Asejire, a new impoundment in Nigeria. Poleonological Archaeology Hydrobiology 26(2):61-73.

Etienne M, Bregeon N (1992). A quick enzymatic quantitative analysis of histamine in tuna by microplate reader. Proceeding of the 22nd annual meeting of the western European fish technologists association.

Garrels RM, Mackenzie FT (1967). Origin of the chemical composition of some springs and lakes. Chemical Series 67:222-242.

Gupta BK, Gupta RR (1999). Physicochemical and biological study of drinking water in Satna Madhya Pradesh. Pollution Research 18(4):523-525.

Hall A, Valente MI, Davis B (1977). The Zambesi River in Mozambique: the physico-chemical status of the middle and lower Zambezi prior to the closure of the Cabora Bassa Dam. Freshwater Biology 7(3):187-206.

Kelley J Kinsey, G Paterson, Brayford D (2003). Identification and control of fungi in distribution systems. AWWA Research Foundation and American Water Works Association, Denver, Colombia.

Kothari A, Sagar V (2008). Antibiotic resistance in pathogens causing community acquired urinary tract infections in India: a multi-centre study. Journal of Infectious Diseases 2:354-358.

Krenkel AP, Novotny V (1980). Water quality management. Academic Press, NC. (London) Ltd pp 46-69.

Levy SB (2001). Antibiotic resistance: consequences of inaction. Clinical Infectious Diseases 33: S124-S129.

Montiel A, Rigal S, Welte B (1999). Study of the origin of musty taste in the drinking water supply. Water Science and Technology 40:171-177.

Muller BA (2001). Residential water source and the risk of childhood brain tumors. Environmental Health Perspective 109(6):551-556.

Nystrom A, Grimvall A, Krantz-Rulcker C, Savenhed R, Akerstrand K (1992). Drinking water off-flavour caused by 2, 4, 6-trichloroanisole. Water Science and Technology 25:241-249.

Obi CL, Coker AO, Epoke J, Ndip RN (1998). Distributional patterns of bacterial diarrhoeagenic agents and antibiograms of isolates from diarrhoeaic and non-diarrhoeaic patients in urban and rural areas of Nigeria. The Central African Journal of Medicine 44(9):223-229.

Reza R, Singh G (2009). Physico-chemical analysis of ground water in Angul-talcher region of Orissa, India. Journal of American Science 5(5):53-58.

Sangodoyin AY (1993). Consideration on contamination of groundwater by waste disposal systems in Nigeria. Environmental Technology 14:957-964.

Santra SC (2001). Water pollution (Drinking water standards by World Health Organization, 1971). In: Environmental Science, New Central Book Agency (P) Ltd., Calcutta.

Saxena VK (2004). Geothermal resources of India. Allied Publishers Pvt Ltd., New Delhi, India.

Smyth AJ, Montgomery RF (1962). Soils and land use in Central Western Nigeria.

Vesilind PJ (1993). The Middle East’s WATER critical resource. National Geographic 183(5):38-70.

World Health Organization (1993). Improving water and sanitation hygiene behaviours for the reduction of diarrhoeal disease: The report of an informal consultation. World Health Organization, Geneva. WHO/CDD/CWS WHO.

World Health Organization (1997). Guidelines for drinking-water quality, 2nd ed. Vol. 2. Health criteria and other supporting information. World Health Organization, Geneva.

World Health Organization (2003). Assessing microbial safety of drinking water improving approaches and methods: Improving approaches and methods. OECD Publishing.

Zaman CL (2002). A nested case-control study of methemoglobinemia risk factors in children of Transylvania, Romania. Environmental Health Perspectives 110(8):817-822.

Zuccato E, Calamar D, Natangelo M, Fanelli R (2000). Presence of therapeutic drugs in the environment. The Lancet 355(9217):1789-1790.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15835/nsb10110058


**********************************************************************

Under the aegis of Horticulture and Forestry Society from Transylvania

**********************************************************************